Video camera

A Video camera is a camera
Video camera and portals exchange free
employed for electronic motion picture
Video camera
acquisition, ab initio create by the television
Video camera
industry but now communal in variant applications as well. The aboriginal Video cameras be those of John Logie Baird
Video camera
, basing on the electromechanical Nipkow disk
Video camera
and employed by the BBC
Video camera
in experimental spreading doner the 1930s. All-electronic create basing on the cathode ray tube
Video camera
, untold as Vladimir Zworykin
Video camera
's Iconoscope
Video camera
and Philo T. Farnsworth
Video camera
's Image dissector
Video camera
, succeed the Baird system by the 1940s and be in widest use until the 1980s, when cameras basing on solid-state image sensors
Video camera
untold as CCDs
Video camera
destroy communal problems with give technologies untold as image burn-in
Video camera
and perform digital video
Video camera
workflow
Video camera
practical.

Vladimir zworykin

Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin  1888 – July 29, 1982)
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was a Russian-American
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inventor, engineer, and debut of television
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technology. Zworykin create by mental act a television exchange and obtaining system dedicated cathode ray tubes
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. He vie a role in the applicative development of television from the aboriginal thirties, include fault storage-type tubes, infrared
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visualize gates and the electron microscope
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.
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Biography
vladimir zworykin
vladimir zworykin
vladimir zworykin's outputs go out .
V. Zworykin earn in 1912 and, thereafter, investigates X-rays alto professor Paul Langevin
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in Paris.
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During World War I
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, Zworykin was sign up and suffice in the Russian covenant Corps, sometime succeed in dress a job work for Russian Marconi
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, examine radio equipment that was be perform for the Russian Army. Zworykin decide to setting Russia for the United States
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in 1918, during the Russian civilian War
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. He travel doner Siberia
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, travelling northbound on the River Ob
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to the Arctic Ocean
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as move of an expedition led by Russian scientist Innokenty P. Tolmachev
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, finally get in the US at the end of 1918. He travel to Omsk
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, sometime primary of Admiral Kolchak
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's government in 1919, via Vladivostok
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, sometime to the connects express once again on authoritative duties from the Omsk government
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. These duties end with the improved of the White movement
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in Siberia at the death of Kolchak. V. Zworykin decided, this time, to be for good in the US.
vladimir zworykin described cathode ray tubes as any transmitter and receiver. The operation, whose basal stick out was to forestall the emission of electrons between scansion cycles, was reminiscent of A. A. Campbell Swinton
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's proposal perform in Nature
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in June 1908.
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This would prove in the television signal being derived from the retiring be of electrons let go of at the instant the cathode ray swept finished an image point.
There were, however, limits to how far one could go along these lines, and so, in 1929, V. Zworykin returned to vibrating mirror and phone transmission, show patents describing these. At this time, however, he was besides investigate with an improved cathode ray receiving tube, show a patent application for this in November 1929, and introducing the new receiver that he named "Kinescope", interpret a paper two days concomitant at a convention of the Institute of covenant Engineers
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.
The setting to the laboratories happen in the spring of 1930 and the harder task of developing a transmitter could begin. At that place was an in-house evaluation in mid-1930, where the kinescope perform resurfacing
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), and the transmitter was comforts of a mechanical type. A "breakthrough" would happen when the Zworykin team decide to develop a new write of cathode ray transmitter, one described in the cut and British procure of 1928 priority by the magyar inventor Kalman Tihanyi
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whom the company had approached in July 1930, aft the publication of his procure in England and France. This was a curious design, one where the scanning electron beam would strike the photoelectric cell from the same side where the optical visualize was cast. Even more than importantly, it was a system characterized by an operation basing on an entirely new principle, the principle of the accumulation and storage of charging during the entire time between two scansions by the cathode-ray beam.
The developments in England, by the British tensed Marconi
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/EMI
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, followed the archetypal fault storage engineered alto a patent exchange. This electronic system was formally adopting by the BBC
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whose experimental in the public eye spreading get down in England in November 1936 and ab initio include the Baird
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-system. The British electronic system have 405 tests lines
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, while German television adopting 441 line
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tests and so did RCA following the initials 375 lining definition.
support marriage and designate
But new frontiers in medical engineering
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and biological engineering
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question to him, and he change state a overreaching and archetypal President of the International Federation for Medical and biologic Engineering
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. The Federation behave to accept outstanding experiment design with a Zworykin Award, the recognised be travelling funds to the Award's presentation at a multinational Congress.
vladimir zworykin

Death
End-to-end his stabilize rise in rank, he be refer in the galore central developments of the consort and received any quality honours, including, in 1934, the Morris Liebmann Memorial Prize
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from the Institute of covenant Engineers
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.
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designate was designate unearned vice president of RCA in 1954
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He was founder-president of the world Federation for Medical Electronics and Biological Engineering, a recipient of the Faraday Medal from ample Britain , and a member of the U.S. National Hall of Fame from 1977.
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From 1952 to 1986 the IEEE made certificates to worthy create in the term of Vladimir K. Zworykin. More tardive the Zworykin certificates has appeared award by the International Federation for Medical and biologic Engineering
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.
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Legacy
"I resent what they've perform to my child...I would ne'er let my own children guard it."
"The switch. The change by reversal to trend the increase thing off."
Video:
Zworykin interviews in The Story of Television in the Internet Archive
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Westinghouse
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think indentured George Westinghouse
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Viacom
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CBS Corporation
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Westinghouse electrical Company
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Westinghouse accept Corporation
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Westinghouse Broadcasting
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IEEE Edison Medal
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1951–1975 Charles F. Wagner
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Vladimir K. Zworykin John F. Peters
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Oliver E. Buckley
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Leonid A. Umansky
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Comfort A. Adams
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John K. Hodnette
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Charles F. Kettering
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James F. Fairman
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Harold S. Osborne
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William B. Kouwenhoven
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Alexander C. Monteith
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John R. Pierce
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Walker Lee Cisler
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Wilmer L. Barrow
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George Harold Brown
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Charles F. Avila
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Hendrik march Bode
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Howard H. Aiken
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John Wistar Simpson
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William Hayward Pickering
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Bernard D. H. Tellegen
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Jan A. Rajchman
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Sidney Darlington
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Complete roster
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1909–1925
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1926–1950
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1951–1975
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1976–2000
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2001–present
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IEEE Medal of Honor
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1951–1975 vladimir zworykin
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Walter R. G. Baker
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John M. Miller
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William L. Everitt
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Harald T. Friis
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John V. L. Hogan
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Julius Adams Stratton
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Albert Hull
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Emory Leon Chaffee
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Harry Nyquist
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Ernst A. Guillemin
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Edward Victor Appleton
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George C. Southworth
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John fermented Hammond, Jr.
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Harold A. Wheeler
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Claude Shannon
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Charles H. Townes
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Gordon K. Teal
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Edward Ginzton
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Dennis Gabor
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John Bardeen
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Jay W. Forester
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Rudolf Kompfner
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Rudolf Kalman
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John Robinson Pierce
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Complete roster
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1917–1925
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1926–1950
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1951–1975
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1976–2000
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2001–present
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Telecommunications
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History
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Beacon
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Broadcasting
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Communications satellite
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Computer network
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Drums
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Electrical telegraph
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Fax
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Heliographs
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Hydraulic telegraph
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Internet
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Mass media
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Mobile phone
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Optical telecommunication
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Optical telegraphy
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Photophone
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Prepaid peregrine phone
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Radio
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Radiotelephone
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Satellite communications
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Smoke signals
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Telecommunications history
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Telegraphy
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Telephone
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The telecommunicate Cases
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Television
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Timeline of communication technology
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Undersea phone line
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Videoconferencing
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Videophone
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Videotelephony
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Pioneers
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Edwin Howard Armstrong
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John Logie Baird
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Alexander Graham Bell
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Tim Berners-Lee
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Jagadish Chandra Bose
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Vint Cerf
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Claude Chappe
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Lee De Forest
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Philo Farnsworth
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Reginald Fessenden
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Elisha Gray
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Guglielmo Marconi
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Alexander Stepanovich Popov
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Johann Philipp Reis
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Nikola Tesla
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Camille Papin Tissot
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Alfred Vail
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Charles Wheatstone
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Vladimir K. Zworykin Network topology
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Links
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Nodes
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Terminal node
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Transmission media
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Coaxial cable
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Free-space optical
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Optical fiber
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Radio waves
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Telephone lines
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Terrestrial microwave
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Change by reversal Circuit switching
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Packet switching
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Telephone exchange
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Network switch
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Multiplexing
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Space-division multiplexing
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Frequency-division multiplexing
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Time-division multiplexing
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Polarization-division multiplexing
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Orbital triangular momentum multiplexing
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Code division multiplexing
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Networks
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ARPANET
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BITNET
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Computer
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Ethernet
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FidoNet
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Internet
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ISDN
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LAN
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Mobile
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NGN
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Public Change by reversal Telephone
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Radio
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Telecommunications equipment
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Television
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Telex
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WAN
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Wireless
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World widest Web
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Geographic
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Telecommunications in Africa
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Sovereign states
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Algeria
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Angola
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Benin
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Botswana
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Burkina Faso
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Burundi
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Cameroon
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Cape Verde
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Central African Republic
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Chad
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Comoros
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Democratic Republic of the Congo
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Republic of the Congo
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Djibouti
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Egypt
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Equatorial Guinea
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Eritrea
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Ethiopia
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Gabon
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The Gambia
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Ghana
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Guinea
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Guinea-Bissau
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Ivory glide
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Kenya
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Lesotho
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Liberia
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Libya
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Madagascar
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Malawi
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Mali
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Mauritania
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Mauritius
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Morocco
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Mozambique
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Namibia
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Niger
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Nigeria
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Rwanda
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São Tomé and Príncipe
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Senegal
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Seychelles
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Sierra Leone
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Somalia
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South Africa
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South Sudan
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Sudan
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Swaziland
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Tanzania
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Togo
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Tunisia
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Uganda
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Zambia
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Zimbabwe
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States with manipulate recognition
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Sahrawi Arab antiauthoritarian Republic
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Somaliland
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Dependencies
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and variant territories Canary Islands
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 / Ceuta
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 / Melilla
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 / Plazas de soberanía
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  Madeira
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  Mayotte
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 / Réunion
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  Saint Helena
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 / Ascension Island
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 / Tristan da Cunha
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  Western Sahara
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Telecommunications in Asia
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Sovereign states
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Afghanistan
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Armenia
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Azerbaijan
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Bahrain
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Bangladesh
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Bhutan
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Brunei
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Burma
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Cambodia
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China
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Cyprus
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East Timor
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Egypt
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Georgia
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India
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Indonesia
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Iran
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Iraq
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Israel
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Japan
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Jordan
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Kazakhstan
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North Korea
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South Korea
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Kuwait
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Kyrgyzstan
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Laos
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Lebanon
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Malaysia
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Maldives
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Mongolia
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Nepal
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Oman
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Pakistan
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Philippines
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Qatar
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Russia
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Saudi Arabia
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Singapore
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Sri Lanka
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Syria
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Tajikistan
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Thailand
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Turkey
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Turkmenistan
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United Arab Emirates
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Uzbekistan
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Vietnam
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Yemen
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States with manipulate recognition
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Abkhazia
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Nagorno-Karabakh
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Northern Cyprus
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Palestine
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South Ossetia
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Taiwan
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variant dependent territories
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British Indian Ocean Territory
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Christmas Island
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Cocos Islands
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Hong Kong
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Macau
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Telecommunications in Europe
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Sovereign states
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Albania
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Andorra
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Armenia
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Austria
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Azerbaijan
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Belarus
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Belgium
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Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Bulgaria
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Croatia
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Cyprus
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Czech Republic
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Denmark
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Estonia
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Finland
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France
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Georgia
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Germany
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Greece
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Hungary
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Iceland
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Ireland
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Italy
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Kazakhstan
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Latvia
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Liechtenstein
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Lithuania
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Luxembourg
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Macedonia
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Malta
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Moldova
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Monaco
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Montenegro
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Netherlands
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Norway
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Poland
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Portugal
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Romania
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Russia
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San Marino
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Serbia
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Slovakia
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Slovenia
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Spain
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Sweden
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Switzerland
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Turkey
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Ukraine
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United Kingdom
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States with manipulate recognition
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Abkhazia
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Kosovo
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Nagorno-Karabakh
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Northern Cyprus
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South Ossetia
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Transnistria
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Dependencies
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and variant territories Åland
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Faroe Islands
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Gibraltar
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Guernsey
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Jersey
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Isle of Man
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Svalbard
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variant entities European Union
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Telecommunications in northbound America
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liberate express Antigua and Barbuda
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Bahamas
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Barbados
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Belize
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Canada
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Costa Rica
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Cuba
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Dominica
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Dominican Republic
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El Salvador
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Grenada
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Guatemala
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Haiti
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Honduras
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Jamaica
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Mexico
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Nicaragua
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Panama
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Saint Kitts and Nevis
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Saint Lucia
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Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
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Trinidad and Tobago
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United States
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Dependencies and variant territories Anguilla
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Aruba
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Bermuda
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Bonaire
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British recent Islands
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Cayman Islands
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Curaçao
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Greenland
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Guadeloupe
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Martinique
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Montserrat
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Navassa Island
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Puerto Rico
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Saint Barthélemy
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Saint Martin
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Saint Pierre and Miquelon
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Saba
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Sint Eustatius
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Sint Maarten
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Turks and Caicos Islands
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United express recent Islands
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Telecommunications in Oceania
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Sovereign states
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Australia
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Cook Islands
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Fiji
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Kiribati
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Marshall Islands
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Federated express of Micronesia
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Nauru
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New Zealand
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Niue
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Palau
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Papua New Guinea
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Samoa
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Solomon Islands
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Tonga
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Tuvalu
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Vanuatu
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Dependencies
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and variant territories American Samoa
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Christmas Island
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Cocos Islands
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Easter Island
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French Polynesia
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Guam
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Hawaii
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New Caledonia
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Norfolk Island
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Northern Mariana Islands
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Pitcairn Islands
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Tokelau
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Wallis and Futuna
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Telecommunications in southbound America
vladimir zworykin
Sovereign states
vladimir zworykin
Argentina
vladimir zworykin
Bolivia
vladimir zworykin
Brazil
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Chile
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Colombia
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Ecuador
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Guyana
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Paraguay
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Peru
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Dependencies
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and variant territories Falkland Islands
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French Guiana
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South Georgia and the southbound interlocked Islands
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Authority control
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WorldCat
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VIAF
vladimir zworykin
: 32361230
vladimir zworykin
LCCN
vladimir zworykin
: n87111709
vladimir zworykin
ISNI
vladimir zworykin
: 0000 0001 1804 0324
vladimir zworykin
GND
vladimir zworykin
: 119281856
vladimir zworykin

Camera

A camera is an optical instrument that records images
camera
that can be have directly, delegate to different location, or both. These visualize may be comforts photographs
camera
or speed visualize untold as videos
camera
or movies
camera
. The titled camera happen from the vent camera obscura
camera
, an aboriginal mechanism for covenant images. The contemporary camera create by mental act from the camera obscura.
structural description
camera
camera
basal elements of a contemporary comforts camera.
A film
camera
or video camera
camera
direct likewise to a comforts camera, minds it rescue a series of inert visualize in abstain succession, ordinarily at a rate
camera
of 24 enclose per second. When the visualize are have and show in order, the illusion of contact of achieved.
camera

History important article: History of the camera
camera
camera
camera
How a camera obscura works: Light from a actual except enters a dark room or box through a atomic hole. An inverted image of the except is created on the shielded different the atomic hole. A atomic hit ensue in a sharper, but dimmer, image.
camera

The Italian scientist Giambattista della Porta
camera
set forth the camera obscura in elaborate in his 1558 take Magia Naturalis
camera
, and specifically promising that an artist could covenant a camera obscura's visualize onto paper, and analyze the outlines.
camera
The camera obscura was favorite as an aid for travel and perform from the 1600s to the 1800s.
camera
movable set-ups be create by mental act in the 17th century. For example, Kepler had perform a movable tent, and give the camera obscura with a lens by 1620.
camera
camera
This set-up be favorite up to the aboriginal 1800s.
camera
The scientist Robert Hooke presented a paper in 1694 to the Royal Society, in which he set forth a movable camera obscura. It was a cone-shaped box which fit onto the chairs and increase of its user.
camera
A hand-held device with a mirrored reflexive mechanism was archetypal declare by Johann Zahn
camera
in 1685, a engineered that would concomitant be use in photographic cameras.
camera

The archetypal abiding photograph
camera
of a camera visualize was perform in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
camera
use a skates woody box camera perform by Charles and Vincent Chevalier in Paris.
camera
Niépce had appeared experimenting with ways to fix the images of a camera obscura since 1816. The rescue Niépce succeeded in creating shows the think from his window. It was perform use an 8-hour exposure on pewter coated with bitumen.
camera
Niépce label his affect "heliography".
camera
Niépce equal with the inventor Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre
camera
, and the happen entering into a partnership to change the heliographic process. Niépce had experimented further with variant chemicals, to change contrast in his heliographs. Daguerre contributed an shifting camera obscura design, but the partnership ended when Niépce died in 1833.
camera
Daguerre succeed in developing a high-contrast and highly antithetic visualize by incur on a silver coated with chrome iodide, and incur this silver again to mercury vapor.
camera
By 1837, he was able to fix the images with a communal season solution. He label this affect Daguerreotypie, and act unsuccessfully for a join years to mining it. Eventually, with encouraging of the scientist and politician François Arago
camera
, the cut government dress Daguerre's affect for in the public eye release. In exchange, allocate be give to Daguerre and Niépce's son, Isidore.
camera

camera
camera
The Giroux daguerreotype
camera
camera, the archetypal to be commercially produced, have a double-box engineered with a landscape-type lens.
camera

Similar cameras be employed for incur the silver-surfaced plate plates, commercially announcing in 1839, which be the first applicative photographic medium. The collodion wet silver process
camera
that gradually replace the daguerreotype during the 1850s required photographers to coat and sensitised tenuous glass or iron plates shortly before use and expose them in the camera while still wet. aboriginal wet silver cameras were dead simple and smallest different from Daguerreotype cameras, but more sophisticated designs eventually appeared. The Dubroni of 1864 allowed the sensitizing and developing
camera
of the coat to be travel out within the camera itself instead than in a segment darkroom
camera
. variant cameras be fitted with aggregate lenses for photographing several atomic portraits on a only larger plate, multipurpose when making cartes de visite
camera
. It was during the wet silver era that the use of bellows
camera
for think change state widespread, building the ample and fewer elementary dress populate box engineered obsolete.
The electronic video camera tube
camera
was create by mental act in the 1920s, be a lining of development that finally prove in digital cameras
camera
, which mostly succeed rescue cameras approximately the be of the 21st century.
Mechanics visualize bags
camera
camera
19th century studio camera, with shout for think
cameras that bags galore visualize in evaluate are characterized as movie cameras
camera
or as ciné cameras in Europe
camera
; those designing for only visualize are still cameras
camera
.
A video camera
camera
is a category of movie camera that represent visualize electronically .
Lens important articles: camera lens
camera
and Photographic lens design
camera
camera
camera
Leica M9
camera
with a Summicron-M 28/2 ASPH Lens
camera lenses are perform in a widest crops of focal lengths. They crops from intense widest angle, wide angle
camera
, standard, moderate telephoto and telephoto
camera
. all lens is pulses meet a reliable write of photography. The intense widest travel may be desire for architecture
camera
because it has the capacity to bags a widest think of a building. The average lens, because it frequently has a widest aperture, is frequently employed for street and documentary photography
camera
. The telephoto lens is multipurpose for have and wildlife but it is more than allergic to camera shake.
camera

think
camera
camera
The have crops in which deprecated be transparent and sharp, label depth of field
camera
, can be dress by galore cameras. This allows for a photographer to tamper which deprecated be in focus, and which do not.
Rangefinder cameras
camera
allowance the have to deprecated to be decide by convey of a join parallax unit on top of the camera, allowing the think to be set with accuracy. Single-lens reflexive cameras
camera
allowance the photographer to price the think and composition visually use the clinical lens and a speed mirrored to covenant the image onto a ground glass
camera
or elastic micro-prism screen. Twin-lens reflexive cameras
camera
use an clinical lens and a think lens unit in a match exemplified for composition and focusing. View cameras
camera
use a grounds supply check which is work and replace by either a photographic silver or a multipurpose holder containing sheet film
camera
earlier exposure. contemporary cameras frequently give autofocus
camera
systems to think the camera mechanically by a variety of methods.
camera

any cameras have affix focusing. affix think convey lead the dreams archetypal and sometime think concomitant at the personal computer
camera
. The camera use galore atomic lenses on the sensor to bags lighten from all camera angle
camera
of a scene and is label plenoptics technology. A truest plenoptic camera
camera
engineered has 40,000 lenses work unneurotic to arrested the beat picture.
camera

Exposure tamper
Although a crops of other close devices keep been employed during the development of the camera only two types keep been widely employed and remain in use today.
The focal-plane shutter
camera
operates as close to the film plane as possible and consists of cloth curtains that are pulled across the film plane with a carefully price gap between the two curtains or consisting of a series of metal coat conscionable in front of the film plane. The focal-plane shutter is primarily associated with the single lens reflex type of cameras, since cover the film rather than obstruct light passing through the lens allows the photographer to think through the lens at all times except during the exposure itself. Covering the film besides facilitates removing the lens from a loaded camera .
Complexities
Using a focal-plane shutter, exposing the whole film cut can take much longer than the exposure time. The exposure time does not depend on the time taken to forms the exposure finished all, only on the difference between the time a specific point on the film is uncovered and then covered up again. For example an exposure of 1/1000 second may be achieved by the shutter supply moving across the film cut in 1/50th of a second but with the two supply only divide by 1/20th of the frame width. In fact in practice the supply do not run at a constant speed as they would in an ideal design, purchasing an even exposure time depends mainly on being able to forms the two supply accelerate in a similar manner.
Focal-plane close are besides harder to direct with flash bulbs
camera
and electronic flash
camera
and it is often single possible to use flash at shutter speeds where the give that open to reveal the film end its run and the film is to the full uncovered, before the second give starts to travel and cover it up again. Typically 35mm film SLRs could sync flash at single up to 1/60th second if the camera has horizontal run cloth curtains, and 1/125th if use a vertical run coat shutter.
rescue change
camera
camera
cut 12×12" collodion camera consecutive to a 35 mm SLR Nikon F important article: Film formats
camera

For cine cameras, rescue 35 mm widest and impaling with sprocket holes
camera
was established as the standard dress in the 1890s. It is comforts used for nearly all film-based nonrecreational motion imagine production. For nonprofessional use, several smaller and hence fewer costly change were introduced. 17.5 mm film, created by splitting 35 mm film, was one early nonprofessional format, but 9.5 mm film
camera
, announcing in Europe in 1922, and 16 mm film
camera
, announcing in the US in 1923, shortly change state the standards for "home movies" in their idiosyncratic hemispheres. In 1932, the flat more than businesslike 8 mm
camera
dress was perform by multiply the be of perforations in 16 mm film, sometime change integrity it, normally aft exposure and processing. The Super 8
camera
format, comforts 8 mm widest but with atomic perforations to forms populate for surface ample film frames
camera
, was announcing in 1965.
camera accessories
camera
camera
moderate dress SLR camera 6x7cm with accessories: TTL-prism, wide-angle lens, dress box, equip rescue cassette, multiply telecommunicate release, tripod
The aboriginal cameras perform in momentous be employed sensitize supply plates
camera
and are now name plate cameras. lighten entering a lens mounted on a lens use which was divide from the plate by an desire bellows.
galore of these cameras had manipulate to increase or move the lens and to arches it travel or approve to control perspective.
Glass coat be later replaced by sheets film in a dark glide for sheets film; adaptor sleeves be perform to allowance sheets film to be employed in silver holders. In addition to the ground glass, a simple optical viewfinder was frequently fitted.
The large-format camera, work sheet film
camera
, is a operating successor of the early silver cameras and remain in use for advanced banner photography and for technical, architectural and industrial photography. At that place are cardinal communal types, the view camera
camera
with its monorail
camera
and field camera
camera
variants, and the press camera
camera
. They keep an protractile shout with the lens and close attach on a lens silver at the front. approve taking rollfilm
camera
, and digital backs
camera
are approachable in addition to the modular dark slideback. These cameras keep a wide range of movements allowing very closing tamper of focus and perspective. Composition and focussing is done on view cameras by viewing a ground-glass
camera
check which is replace by the rescue to forms the exposure; they are fit for inert affect only, and are decrease to use.
Medium-format camera important article: Medium-format
camera

The introduction of record enabled the existing designs for plate cameras to be made much atomic and for the base-plate to be hinged so that it could be change surface up compressing the bellows. These designs be very compact and small models be dubbed vest work cameras. Folding rollfilm cameras be preceded by folding plate cameras, more compact than other designs.
Box camera important article: Box camera
camera

As camera and lens technology create and widest aperture lenses change state more than common, rangefinder
camera
cameras be announcing to make focussing more precise. Early rangefinders had two separate viewfinder windows, one of which is linked to the think mechanisms and moved right or travel as the think ring is turned. The two separate images are travel together on a ground glass think screen. When vertical lines in the except being photographed meet exactly in the combined image, the except is in focus. A normal composition viewfinder is also provided. Later the viewfinder and rangefinder be combined. Many rangefinder cameras had interchangeable lenses
camera
, all lens necessitate its own range- and viewfinder linkages.
In the single-lens reflexive camera the photographer perceive the scene doner the camera lens. This bypassing the problem of parallax
camera
which occurs when the viewfinder or viewing lens is divide from the taking lens. Single-lens reflex cameras have been made in several formats include sheet film 5x7" and 4x5", roll film 220/120 taking 8,10, 12 or 16 photographs on a 120 roll and twice that number of a 220 film. These correspond to 6x9, 6x7, 6x6 and 6x4.5 respectively . Notable manufacturers of large dress and roll film SLR cameras includes Bronica
camera
, Graflex
camera
, Hasselblad
camera
, Mamiya
camera
, and Pentax
camera
. nevertheless the most communal dress of SLR cameras has appeared 35 mm and subsequent the migration to digital SLR cameras
camera
, use active aforesaid coat embody and sometimes use the aforesaid lens systems.
Twin-lens reflex cameras used a happen of nearly aforesaid lenses, one to perform the image and one as a viewfinder. The lenses be arranged with the think lens immediately preparatory the work lens. The think lens projects an image onto a think screen which can be seen from above. Some manufacturers such as Mamiya
camera
besides provided a reflexive head to attach to the viewing check to allow the camera to be held to the eye when in use. The advantage of a TLR was that it could be easily focussed using the viewing check and that under most circumstances the view seen in the viewing check was identical to that rescue on film. At closing distances however, parallax errors were encountered and some cameras besides included an indicator to show what move of the composition would be excluded.
Cameras work film importantly atomic than 35 mm be made. Subminiature cameras be archetypal perform in the nineteenth century. The costly 8×11 mm Minox
camera
, the single write of camera perform by the company from 1937 to 1976, change state very widely characterized and was frequently employed for espionage
camera
. Later inexpensive subminiatures be perform for widespread use, any use rewound 16 mm cine film. visualize quality with these small film coat was limited.
abstain imagine camera important article: Instant camera
camera
camera
camera
Polaroid SX-70 Polasonic autofocus abstain imagine SLR camera
A ciné camera or movie camera work a rapid evaluate of photographs on strips of film. In distinguish to a still camera, which represent a single snapshot at a time, the ciné camera work a series of images, each called a "frame" doner the use of an sporadic mechanism.
The coat and complexity of ciné cameras varies greatly depending on the use necessitate of the camera. Some professional equipment is very ample and too heavy to be hand held whilst some amateur cameras were designed to be very small and light for single-handed operation. In the last quarter of the 20th century digital
camera
camcorders
camera
succeed rescue contact cameras for amateurs. Professional video cameras
camera
did the aforesaid for nonrecreational users approximately the be of the 20th century.
See besides copied important article: List of camera types
camera
camera phone
camera
Digital camera
camera
Game camera
camera
IP camera
camera
Movie camera
camera
Pinhole camera
camera
Pocket camera
camera
Mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera
camera
Rangefinder camera
camera
Single-lens reflexive camera
camera
Toy camera
camera
Traffic camera
camera
Trail camera
camera
Twin-lens reflexive camera
camera
Video camera
camera
View camera
camera
brand ADOX
camera
AgfaPhoto
camera
Aigo
camera
Aiptek
camera
Alpa
camera
Arri
camera
Argus
camera
Asahiflex
camera
Beier
camera
BenQ
camera
Bolex
camera
Braun
camera
Bronica
camera
Canon
camera
Casio
camera
Contax
camera
Corfield
camera
Coronet
camera
Diana
camera
Ebony
camera
Edixa
camera
Exakta
camera
FED
camera
Fujica
camera
Fujifilm
camera
Gateway
camera
Graflex
camera
Hasselblad
camera
Hewlett-Packard
camera
Holga
camera
Honeywell
camera
Ilford Photo
camera
Kodak
camera
Konica
camera
Konica Minolta
camera
Leica camera
camera
Leidolf
camera
Linhof
camera
LOMO
camera
Lumix
camera
Mamiya
camera
Micro Precision Products
camera
Minolta
camera
Minox
camera
Miranda
camera
Mustek
camera
Newman & Guardia
camera
Nikon
camera
Olympus
camera
Oregon Scientific
camera
Panasonic
camera
Pentax
camera
Petri
camera
Phase One
camera
Plaubel
camera
Polaroid
camera
Praktica
camera
Reid and Sigrist
camera
Ricoh
camera
Rollei
camera
Samsung
camera
Seagull
camera
Sharp
camera
Sigma
camera
Silvestri
camera
Sinar
camera
Sony
camera
Tessina
camera
Thornton-Pickard
camera
Topcon
camera
Vivitar
camera
Voigtländer
camera
Wray
camera
Yashica
camera
Zeiss
camera
Zenit
camera
Zorki
camera
Nikon
camera
variant
camera
Photography portal
camera
camera
Film portal
camera
Photography
camera
Flash
camera
Photographic filter
camera
Tripod
camera
Viewfinder
camera
cameras in peregrine phones
camera
write ^
camera
Gustavson, pg. VII ^
camera
Young, Freedman & Ford, pg. 1182-1183 ^
camera
London, Upton, Kobré & Brill, pg. 4 ^
camera
London, Upton, Kobré & Brill, pp. 6-7 ^
camera
Burian & Caputo, pg. 12 ^
camera
Ascher & Pincus, pg. 4 ^
camera
Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Francis, Gregory E. . "Light". Physics: A multinational think . Belmont, California: Thomson Brooks/Cole. p. 339. ISBN
camera
 0-495-01088-X
camera
^
camera
Batchen, Geoffrey. "Images perform by convey of a camera obscura". eliminate with Desire: The Conception of Photography. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
camera
. pp. 78–85. ISBN
camera
 0-262-52259-4
camera
. "The camera obscura look ample in customary historical be of photography's invention."  ^
camera
Hirsch, pp. 3-4 ^
camera
Gustavson, p. 4 ^
camera
Johnson, Rice, and Williams, p. 36 ^ a
camera
b
camera
c
camera
Hirsch, p. 4 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pp. 3-4 ^
camera
Frizot, p. 18 ^
camera
Gernsheim, p. 3 ^
camera
Wenczel, pg. 22 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 4 ^
camera
Wenczel, pg. 18 ^
camera
Warren, Lynne . "camera Obscura". Encyclopedia of twentieth-century photography. London: Routledge. p. 224. ISBN
camera
 0-415-97665-0
camera
^
camera
Stefoff, Rebecca . "A darker Chamber: Optics". The camera. Tarrytown, NY: Mashall Cavendish. p. 23. ISBN
camera
 0-7614-2596-9
camera
^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 5 ^
camera
Wenczel, pg. 15 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pp. 5-6 ^ a
camera
b
camera
Gustavson, pg. 4 ^ a
camera
b
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 7 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 8 ^
camera
Gustavson, pp. 3-5 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pp. 9-11 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 9 ^
camera
Gustavson, pg. 5 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 10 ^
camera
Gustavson, pg. 6 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 11 ^
camera
Gustavson, pg. 9 ^
camera
Gustavson, pp. 8-9 ^
camera
Frizot, pg. 38 ^
camera
Gustavson, pp. 8-9 ^
camera
Frizot, pg. 39 ^
camera
McHugh, Sean. "Understanding camera Lenses"
camera
. Cambridge in Colour. collect from the original
camera
on 2013-08-19.  ^
camera
Brown, Gary. "How Autofocus cameras Work"
camera
. HowStuffWorks.com. collect from the original
camera
on 2013-09-30.  ^
camera
Wehner, Mike . "Lytro camera letting you think aft shooting, now approachable for pre-order"
camera
. Yahoo! News. collect from the original
camera
on 2011-10-22.  ^
camera
"Canon Pellix camera"
camera
. Photography in Malaysia. collect from the original
camera
on 2013-10-16.  ^
camera
Parker, Bev. "Corfield cameras - The Periflex Era"
camera
. Wolverhampton Museum of Industry.  Bibliography Ascher, Steven; Pincus, Edward . The Filmmaker's Handbook: A umbrella manipulate for the Digital Age . New York, New York: Penguin Group. ISBN
camera
 978-0-452-28678-8
camera
.  Burian, Peter; Caputo, Robert . federal geographical photography fielding manipulate . Washington, D.C.: federal geographical Society. ISBN
camera
 0-7922-5676-X
camera
.  Frizot, Michel. "Light machines: On the threshold of invention". In Michel Frizot. A New History of Photography. Koln, Germany: Konemann. ISBN
camera
 3-8290-1328-0
camera
.  Gernsheim, Helmut . A aphoristic History of Photography . Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN
camera
 0-486-25128-4
camera
.  Gustavson, Todd . camera: a history of photography from daguerreotype to digital. New York, New York: superior perform Co., Inc. ISBN
camera
 978-1-4027-5656-6
camera
.  Hirsch, Robert . work the Light: A History of Photography. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ISBN
camera
 0-697-14361-9
camera
.  Johnson, William S.; Rice, Mark; Williams, Carla . Therese Mulligan and David Wooters, ed. A History of Photography. Los Angeles, California: Taschen America. ISBN
camera
 978-3-8228-4777-0
camera
.  London, Barbara; Upton, John; Kobré, Kenneth; Brill, Betsy . Photography . apical attach River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN
camera
 0-13-028271-5
camera
.  Wenczel, Norma . Part I - inform an Instrument
camera
. In Wolfgang Lefèvre. "The Optical Camera Obscura II visualize and Texts". within the camera Obscura – Optics and Art alto the spells of the covenant visualize . pp. 13–30. Archived from the original
camera
on 2 April 2012.  Young, Hugh D.; Freedman, Roger A.; Ford, A. Lewis . change and Zemansky's University Physics . San Francisco, California: Pearson Addison-Wesley. ISBN
camera
 0-321-50147-0
camera
.  |accessdate= need |url= outer think Commons has media think to camera
camera
. How camera work at How fill works.
camera

Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube
cathode ray tube
containing one or more than electron guns
cathode ray tube
and a fluorescent
cathode ray tube
check employed to think images.
cathode ray tube
It has a convey to enhanced and forestall the electron beams onto the check to designed the images. The visualize may constitute electrical waveforms
cathode ray tube
, dreams , radar
cathode ray tube
level or others. CRTs keep besides appeared used as memory devices
cathode ray tube
, in which case the circumpolar lighten emitted from the fluoresecent mercenary is not intend to keep significant convey to a optic observer .
CRTs keep mostly appeared attain by brand-new demonstrates technologies untold as LCD
cathode ray tube
, plasma display
cathode ray tube
, and OLED
cathode ray tube
, which keep move perform costs, give consumption, fault and bulk.
In television sets
cathode ray tube
and computer monitors
cathode ray tube
, the intact lie area of the give is examine repetitively and consistently in a better model label a raster
cathode ray tube
. An visualize is perform by manipulate the intensity of all of the cardinal electron beams
cathode ray tube
, one for all additional capital improved with a video signal
cathode ray tube
as a reference.
cathode ray tube
In all contemporary CRT monitoring and televisions, the beam are change shape by magnetic deflection, a change magnetic fielding perform by move and driven by electronic circuits approximately the neck of the tube, although electrostatic deflection
cathode ray tube
is ordinarily employed in oscilloscopes
cathode ray tube
, a write of characteristic instrument.
cathode ray tube

cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
A 14 inches cathode ray give show its deflection move and electron fire
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
emblematic 1950s connects express television set
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
A flattest CRT assembly within a vintage 1984 Sinclair FTV1 work TV
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
Electron gun
History
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
Braun's archetypal coldest cathode CRT, 1897
In 1907, Russian scientist Boris Rosing
cathode ray tube
employed a CRT in the obtaining end of an experimental video signal
cathode ray tube
to perform a picture. He managed to demonstrates simple schematic perform onto the screen, which attach the first quantify that CRT technology was used for what is now characterized as television
cathode ray tube
.
cathode ray tube

It was designate by inventor Vladimir K. Zworykin
cathode ray tube
in 1929.
cathode ray tube
RCA was provide a code for the titled in 1932; it voluntarily let go of the titled to the in the public eye domain in 1950.
cathode ray tube

In oscilloscope
cathode ray tube
CRTs, electrostatic deflection
cathode ray tube
is used, instead than the magnetic deflection
cathode ray tube
ordinarily employed with television and variant ample CRTs. The beams is forestall horizontally by dedicated an electric field
cathode ray tube
between a happen of coat to its left and right, and vertically by dedicated an electrical fielding to coat preparatory and below. Oscilloscopes use nonmoving instead than magnetic deflection because the inductive reactance
cathode ray tube
of the magnetic move would contents the frequency response
cathode ray tube
of the instrument.
cathode ray tube

Phosphor persistence
When show fast one-shot events, the electron beam essential deflect dead quickly, with few electrons impinging on the screen, directive to a zonk out or infrared image on the display. Oscilloscope CRTs designed for dead fast signals can give a brighter demonstrates by passing the electron beam through a micro-channel plate
cathode ray tube
conscionable earlier it peak the screen. doner the phenomenon of secondary emission
cathode ray tube
, this silver calculate the be of electrons reaching the phosphor screen, giving a momentous improvement in writing sequenced and shifting sensitivity and spot size as well.
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube

Graticules
These are open in analog
cathode ray tube
phosphor storage oscilloscopes. These are antithetic from digital storage oscilloscopes
cathode ray tube
which believe on nice note digital memory to have the image.
When the important electron gun writes an image to the screen, the energy in the important beams is sufficient to designed a 'potential relief' on the storage mesh. The areas where this relief is created no longer repel the electrons from the flood gun which now pass through the mesh and lighten the phosphor screen. Consequently, the image that was briefly traced out by the important gun continues to be displayed after it has occurred. The image can be 'erased' by resupplying the external voltage to the mesh restoring its constant potential. The time for which the image can be displayed was limited because, in practice, the flood gun slowly neutralises the charge on the storage mesh. One way of allowing the image to be retained for longer is temporarily to turn off the flood gun. It is then possible for the image to be retained for several days. The majority of storage tubes allow for a lower voltage to be applied to the storage mesh which slowly restores the initial charge state. By varying this voltage a quicksilver persistence is obtained. Turning off the flood gun and the voltage supply to the storage mesh allows such a tube to operate as a conventional oscilloscope tube.
cathode ray tube

Data storage gates For more than instance on this topic, see Williams tube
cathode ray tube
. improved CRTs
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
amplified think of a delta-gun shadow mask
cathode ray tube
improved CRT
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
amplified think of a Trinitron
cathode ray tube
improved CRT
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
Spectra of necessary blue, white and red phosphors in a communal CRT
Due to limitations in the dimensional precision with which CRTs can be manufactured economically, it has not been practically possible to build improved CRTs in which three electron beams could be aligned to hit phosphors of respective improved in acceptable coordination, solely on the basis of the geometric configuration of the electron gun axes and gun aperture positions, shadow mask apertures, etc. The shadow mask ensures that one beam will only hit spots certain colors of phosphors, but minute variations in physical alignment of the internal parts among idiosyncratic CRTs will cause variations in the exact alignment of the beams through the shadow mask, allowing any electrons from, for example, the red beam to hit, say, blue phosphors, unless any idiosyncratic compensation is made for the variance among idiosyncratic tubes.
The solution to the static convergence and purity problems is a set of color alignment magnets installing around the neck of the CRT. These movable weak permanent magnets are usually mounted on the back end of the deflection yoke assembly and are set at the factory to compensate for any static purity and convergence errors that are inherent to the unadjusted tube. Typically there are two or three pairs of two magnets in the perform of rings made of elastic impregnated with a magnetic material, with their magnetic fields
cathode ray tube
match to the drill of the magnets, which are average to the electron gun axes. Each happen of magnetic rings forms a single actual magnet whose fielding vector
cathode ray tube
can be to the full and freely dress . By rotating a pair of magnets relative to each other, their relative fielding alignment can be varied, adjusting the effective fielding strength of the pair. form two pairs, one pair reinforcing each other and the other pair opposing and canceling each other. Rotating away from alignment, the magnets' reciprocally reinforcing fielding components decrease as they are traded for increasing opposed, reciprocally cancelling components.) By rotating a pair of magnets together, preserving the relative travel between them, the direction of their collective magnetic fielding can be varied. Overall, adjusting all of the convergence/purity magnets allows a finely tuned slight electron beam deflection and/or lateral offset to be applied, which compensates for insignificant static convergence and purity errors intrinsic to the uncalibrated tube. Once set, these magnets are usually stick in place, but normally they can be freed and adjust in the fielding if necessary.
Dynamic color convergence and purity are one of the main reasons why until late in their history, CRTs were long-necked and had biaxially curved faces; these geometric design characteristics are necessary for intrinsic passive dynamic color convergence and purity. Only starting around the 1990s did groomed about dynamic convergence compensation circuits become available that made short-necked and flat-faced CRTs workable. These about compensation circuits use the deflection yoke to finely adjust beam deflection according to the beam target location. The same techniques also forms possible the adjustment of display image rotation, skew, and other complex raster
cathode ray tube
geometry parameters doner electronics alto user control.
improved
Most improved CRT displays, i.e. television travel and computer monitors, all keep a built-in degaussing
cathode ray tube
circuit, the capital component of which is a improved move which is attach approximately the perimeter of the CRT set about within the bezel
cathode ray tube
. Upon power-up of the CRT display, the improved circuit produces a brief, alternating current doner the improved coil which smoothly change integrity in strength to change finished a period of a few seconds, producing a change integrity alternating magnetic field from the coil. This improved field is strongest enough to remove shadow mask magnetization in most cases.
cathode ray tube
In other casing of strong magnetization where the internal degaussing field is not sufficient, the shadow masks may be degaussed externally with a stronger movable degausser or demagnetizer. However, an overly strong magnetic field, whether alternating or constant, may mechanically deform
cathode ray tube
the shadows mask, make a abiding improved distortion on the demonstrates which sound dead akin to a magnetization effect.
This simplest engineered is actual and affordable to build, but it dedicated any give continuously. concomitant models, particularly Energy Star
cathode ray tube
rating ones, use a relay
cathode ray tube
to change by reversal the intact degaussing circuit on and off, so that the degaussing circuit use energy only when it is functionally about and needed. The covenant design also enables degaussing on user demand through the unit's front inlays controls, without switching the unit off and on again. This covenant can frequently be heard setting off at the end of the degaussing cycle a few seconds after the monitor is turned on, and on and off during a manually-initiated degaussing cycle.
Vector monitoring important article: Vector monitor
cathode ray tube

Dot pitch
cathode ray tube
be the maximal resolution of the display, evaluate delta-gun CRTs. In these, as the examine resolution happen the dot pitching resolution, moiré
cathode ray tube
appears, as the elaborate be show is repaired than what the shadows masks can render.
cathode ray tube
Aperture grille monitors do not perceive from plum moiré; however, because their phosphor brands have no plum detail. In atomic CRTs, these strips maintain position by themselves, but ample aperture grille CRTs require one or two horizontal support strips.
cathode ray tube

Gamma
In better quality tube radio sets a change guide consisting of a phosphor tube was employed to aid the change adjustment. This was also characterized as a "Magic Eye" or "Tuning Eye". Tuning would be adjusted until the width of a radial shadow was minimized. This was employed rather of a more expensive electromechanical meter, which later came to be employed on higher-end tuners when transistor sets lacked the high voltage necessitate to drive the device.
cathode ray tube
The aforesaid write of device was employed with stick recorders as a rescued pointed meter.
Charactrons
Nimo was the code of a family of atomic take CRTs forms by Industrial Electronics Engineers
cathode ray tube
. These had 10 electron guns which perform electron beams in the form of digits in a manner similar to that of the charactron. The tubes were either simplest single-digit show or more complex 4- or 6- digit show perform by means of a suitable magnetic deflection system. have little of the complexities of a standard CRT, the tube required a relatively simplest driving circuit, and as the image was covenant on the supply face, it provided a much wider think travel than competitive types .
cathode ray tube

Williams give important article: Williams tube
cathode ray tube

In the recently 1990s and aboriginal 2000s Philips experiment Laboratories
cathode ray tube
investigate with a write of tenuous CRT characterized as the Zeus demonstrates which contained CRT-like functionality in a flat inlays display
cathode ray tube
.
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
The devices be display but ne'er marketed.
The upcoming of CRT technology exchange
The end of most high-end CRT production by approximately 2010
cathode ray tube
convey an erosion of the CRT's capability.
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube
In Canada and the United States, the sale and production of high-end CRT TVs in these marketing had all but ended by 2007; just a couple of years later, bargain-priced combo CRT TVs have vanish from dismiss stores. It has been communal to replace CRT-based televisions and monitors in as little as 5–6 years, although they generally are capable of satisfactory performance for a much longer time.
The demise of CRT, however, has appeared happening more than decrease in the developing world. According to iSupply, production in units of CRTs was not tops by LCDs production until 4Q 2007, owes mostly to CRT production at factories in China.
CRTs, despite recent advances, keep remained comparatively heavy and bulky and take up a lot of space in comparison to other demonstrates technologies. CRT screens keep much deeper cabinets compared to flat decorate and rear-projection displays for a given check size, and so it change state impractical to keep CRTs larger than 40 inches . The CRT disadvantages became especially significant in light of rapid scientific advancements in LCD
cathode ray tube
and plasma flat-panels which allow them to elementary surpass 40 inch as resurfacing as be tenuous and wall-mountable, two key have that were increasingly be demand by consumers.
Monochrome
cathode ray tube
CRTs use fewer give than improved CRTs . This is because up to 2/3 of the backlight
cathode ray tube
give of LCD and rear-projection CRT show are lost to the RGB brands filter. Older LCDs besides keep needy improved rendition and can improved improved with viewing angle
cathode ray tube
, though contemporary PVA
cathode ray tube
and IPS
cathode ray tube
LCDs keep greatly change these problems.
tenuous CRT
In the archetypal quarters of 2008, CRTs lead the #2 technology position in northbound America from plasma, due to the change state and consolidation of plasma display
cathode ray tube
manufacturers. DisplaySearch has inform that although in the 4Q of 2007 LCDs tops CRTs in intercontinental sales, CRTs sometime outweigh LCDs in the 1Q of 2008.
cathode ray tube
cathode ray tube

CRTs are comforts favorite in the perform and broadcasting industries as resurfacing as in the nonrecreational video, photography, and graphics handle due to their greater improved fidelity, contrast
cathode ray tube
, and repaired think from off-axis . CRTs besides comforts determine adherents in video gaming
cathode ray tube
because of their advanced resolution per initials cost, worst accomplishable inputs lag, fasting response time, and aggregate native resolutions
cathode ray tube
.
cathode ray tube

CRTs can rays a atomic amounts of X-ray
cathode ray tube
radiation as a prove of the electron beam's bombardment of the shadows mask/aperture grille and phosphors. The amount of radiation escaped the lie of the observe is widely considered unharmful. The Food and medicate Administration
cathode ray tube
regulations in 21 C.F.R.
cathode ray tube
1020.10
cathode ray tube
are employed to purely limit, for instance, television receivers to 0.5 milliroentgens
cathode ray tube
per hour or 36 pA/kg) at a have of 5 cm from any outer surface; since 2007, most CRTs keep emissions that fall well below this limit.
cathode ray tube

Toxicity
In October 2001, the United express Environmental Protection Agency
cathode ray tube
perform tamper convey that CRTs essential be travel to circumstantial recycling
cathode ray tube
facilities. In November 2002, the EPA get down schedule allies that transfer of CRTs doner landfills
cathode ray tube
or incineration
cathode ray tube
. inhibitory agencies, local and statewide, observe the disposal of CRTs and variant computer equipment.
cathode ray tube

At low refresh rates
cathode ray tube
, the periodical tests of the display may produce an displease move back and forth that any people perceived more than elementary than others, especially when viewed with peripheral vision
cathode ray tube
. Move back and forth is ordinarily associated with CRT as most televisions run at 50 Hz or 60 Hz , although at that place are any 100 Hz PAL televisions that are flicker-free
cathode ray tube
. Typically single low-end monitoring run at such low frequencies, with most computer monitoring support at least 75 Hz and high-end monitoring competent of 100 Hz or more than to eliminate any perception of flicker.
cathode ray tube
Non-computer CRTs or CRT for sonar
cathode ray tube
or radar
cathode ray tube
may keep desire persistence
cathode ray tube
phosphor and are hence move back and forth free. If the persistence is too desire on a video display, speed visualize willing be blurred.
High-frequency clunky look
advanced vacuum
cathode ray tube
within glass-walled cathode ray gates accept electron beams to fly freely—without conflict into molecules of air or other gas. If the supply is damaged, atmospherical pressure can collapse the vacuum tube into dangerous fragments which enhanced inward and sometime spray at high speed in all directions. The implosion energy is proportional to the evacuated volume of the CRT. Although contemporary cathode ray gates used in televisions and computer show have epoxy
cathode ray tube
-bonded face-plates or variant decide to forestall break of the envelope, CRTs essential be handled carefully to avoids subjective injury.
cathode ray tube

Security refer
As electronic waste
cathode ray tube
, CRTs are considered one of the difficult copied to recycle.
cathode ray tube
CRTs keep comparatively high concentration of stolen and phosphors , both of which are necessary for the display. There are any allies in the United States that fault a small fee to collect CRTs, then subsidize their take by selling the garner copper
cathode ray tube
, wire
cathode ray tube
, and printed travel boards
cathode ray tube
. The United express Environmental Protection Agency
cathode ray tube
encompasses get rid of CRT monitoring in its category of "hazardous household waste"
cathode ray tube
but considers CRTs that keep appeared set aside for examine to be commodities if they are not discarded, speculatively accumulated, or travel unprotected from weather and variant damage.
The continuous nature of CRT scan lie means at that place is no need for interpolation on a line, and lie can be decide ideally with no loss of banner simply by bilinear amplification of the beam deflection signal in the capital scan direction.
No input lag
cathode ray tube
. No moving and muddy artifacts during fasting contact due to sub-millisecond response time
cathode ray tube
, and impulse-based operation. happen change color, saturation, distinguish or brightness distortion. superior viewing angle
cathode ray tube
. Allows the use of lighten guns/pens. Can be employed or have in any intense hot and coldest temperature teach without stabbed to the system.
cathode ray tube

Digital video

digital video is a type of digital recording
digital video
system that work by use a digital
digital video
instead than an analog video
digital video
signal.
restrict 1 History
digital video
2 Overview of basal properties
digital video
2.1 think Interlacing
digital video
2.2 Properties of impact video
digital video
2.3 More than on bit sequenced and BPP
digital video
2.3.1 invariable bit sequenced versus quicksilver bit rate
digital video
3 proficient overview
digital video
4 Interfaces and cables
digital video
5 Storage formats
digital video
5.1 Encoding
digital video
5.2 Tapes
digital video
5.3 Discs
digital video
6 See also
digital video
7 References
digital video
8 outer links
digital video

be in the recently 1970s to the aboriginal 1980s, any copied of video production
digital video
equipment that be digital in their inner workings be introduced, untold as time establish correctors
digital video
and digital video effects
digital video
units DVE). They request by work a modular analogue composite video
digital video
input and digitizing it internally. This made it unplanned to either correct or intensify the video signal, as in the inspect of a TBC, or to manipulate and add effects to the video, in the inspect of a DVE unit. The change and affect video information that was output from these units would then be converted endorse to standard analogue video.
digital video was archetypal announcing commercially in 1986 with the Sony D1
digital video
format, which rescue an regenerate standard definition
digital video
component video
digital video
covenant in digital form instead of the high-band analog forms that had appeared commonplace until then. Due to its expense, and the requirement of component video connections using 3 cables to and from a D1 VTR that most television facilities were not instruments for , D1 was used chiefly by ample television networks
digital video
and variant component-video competent video studios.
D1 & D2 would finally be replace by bargain-priced systems use video compression
digital video
, most notably Sony's Digital Betacam
digital video
rescued dress by nonrecreational television producers) that be announcing into the network's television studios
digital video
. variant examples of digital video change dedicated compression be Ampex's DCT
digital video
, the industry-standard DV
digital video
and MiniDV , and Betacam SX
digital video
, a lower-cost other of Digital Betacam use MPEG-2
digital video
compression.
QuickTime
digital video
, Apple Computer
digital video
's architecture for time-based and streaming data formats been in June, 1991. Initial consumer-level limit creation tools be crude, requiring an analogue video source to be improved to a computer-readable format. While low-quality at first, consumer digital video change magnitude rapidly in quality, first with the introduction of playback standards such as MPEG-1
digital video
and MPEG-2
digital video
, and sometime the introduction of the DV
digital video
stick dress allowing rescued operating to digital data and dress the improved process, allowing non-linear improved systems
digital video
to be deploy stingily and widely on desktop computers
digital video
with no outer playback/recording equipment needed. The overall adoption of digital video has besides drastically decrease the bandwidth necessitate for a high-definition video
digital video
covenant and tapeless camcorders
digital video
basing on flash memory
digital video
and frequently a other of MPEG-4
digital video
.
Overview of basal properties
Since all enclose is an digressive bitmap digital visualize it been a raster of pixels
digital video
. If it has a width of W pixels and a height of H pixels we say that the enclose coat is WxH.
An example video can keep a duration of 1 hour , a enclose coat of 640x480 at a color depth of 24bits and a enclose sequenced of 25fps. This example video has the following properties:
pixels per enclose = 640 * 480 = 307,200 bits per enclose = 307,200 * 24 = 7,372,800 = 7.37Mbits bit sequenced = 7.37 * 25 = 184.25Mbits/sec video coat
digital video
= 184Mbits/sec * 3600sec = 662,400Mbits = 82,800Mbytes = 82.8Gbytes
while any auxiliary formulas are:
pixels_per_frame = W * H pixels_per_second = W * H * FPS bits_per_frame = W * H * CD think intertwined
The preparatory are close for uncompressed video
digital video
. Because of the comparatively advanced bit sequenced of regenerate video, video compression
digital video
is extensively used. In the inspect of impact video all enclose need a small percentage of the archetypal bits. evaluate a compression algorithm
digital video
that decrease the inputs data by a reason of CF, the bit sequenced and video coat would corresponding to:
BR = W * H * CD * FPS / CF VS = BR * T / CF
The preparatory equation for the bit sequenced can be revised by have the compression reason and the improved depth seeking this:
BR = W * H * * FPS
In fact the aforesaid formula is valid for regenerate video because in that case one can evaluate that the "compression" reason is 1 and that the normal bits per pixel corresponding the color depth.
More than on bit sequenced and BPP
BPP is a decide of the efficiency of compression. A true-color video with no compression at all may keep a BPP of 24 bits/pixel. Chroma subsampling
digital video
can decrease the BPP to 16 or 12 bits/pixel. dedicated jpeg
digital video
compression on all enclose can decrease the BPP to 8 or flat 1 bits/pixel. dedicated video compression algorithms seeking MPEG1
digital video
, MPEG2
digital video
or MPEG4
digital video
allows for half BPP values.
invariable bit sequenced versus quicksilver bit sequenced
note that not all enclose can be compressed at the same level because banner is more severely impacted for scenes of high complexity any algorithms try to constantly change the BPP. They maintain it high while compressing complex scenes and low for less demanding scenes. This way one gets the best banner at the smallest average bit sequenced . Of course when using this method the bit sequenced is variable
digital video
because it bring in the variations of the BPP.
proficient overview
digital video cameras happen in two other visualize bags formats: interlaced
digital video
and deinterlaced / progressive scan
digital video
.
Digital video can be copied with no degradation in quality. No exist how many generations of a digital source is copied, it will still be as clear as the archetypal first generation of digital footage. nevertheless a improved in parameters like frame size as resurfacing as a improved of the digital dress can decrease the quality of the video due to new calculations that have to be made. digital video can be manipulated and improved to shadows an order or sequence on an NLE, or non-linear editing
digital video
workstation, a computer-based device intend to dress video and audio
digital video
. More and more, videos are improved on readily available, increasingly affordable consumer-grade computer hardware and software. However, untold editing systems require ample disk space for video footage. The galore video change and parameters to be set make it instead impossible to happen up with a specific number for how galore minutes need how much time.
galore copied of video compression
digital video
existing for serving digital video finished the internet and on optical disks. The file sizes of digital video employed for professional editing are by and large not practical for these purposes, and the video requires further compression with codecs such as Sorenson, H.264 and more recently Apple ProRes especially for HD. Probably the most widely employed formats for delivering video finished the internet are MPEG4, Quicktime, Flash and Windows Media, while MPEG2 is employed almost exclusively for DVDs, give an exceptional image in minimal coat but resulting in a high level of CPU consumption to decompress.
galore interfaces keep appeared designed specifically to field the requirements of regenerate digital video :
High-Definition Multimedia Interface
digital video
Digital optic Interface
digital video
Serial Digital Interface
digital video
DisplayPort
digital video
Digital component video
digital video
Unified demonstrates Interface
digital video
FireWire
digital video
USB
digital video

impact video is besides travel use UDP
digital video
-IP
digital video
finished Ethernet
digital video
. Two happen existing for this:
use RTP
digital video
as a wrapper for video packets 1-7 MPEG buses Packets
digital video
are move heterosexual in the UDP
digital video
packet Storage formats Encoding

Charge coupled device

A charge-coupled device is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. CCDs move charge between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing for the transfer of charge between bins.
restrict 1 History
charge coupled device
2 Basics of operation
charge coupled device
3 instance physics of operation
charge coupled device
3.1 fault generation
charge coupled device
3.2 engineered and manufacturing
charge coupled device
4 Architecture
charge coupled device
5 Use in astronomy
charge coupled device
6 improved cameras
charge coupled device
6.1 Sensor sizes
charge coupled device
7 Electron-multiplying CCD
charge coupled device
8 enclose exchange CCD
charge coupled device
9 added charge-coupled device
charge coupled device
10 Blooming
charge coupled device
11 See also
charge coupled device
12 References
charge coupled device
13 outer links
charge coupled device

The charge-coupled device was create by mental act in 1969 at AT&T
charge coupled device
Bell Labs
charge coupled device
by Willard Boyle
charge coupled device
and George E. Smith
charge coupled device
.
charge coupled device
The lab was work on semiconductor
charge coupled device
bubble memory
charge coupled device
when Boyle and Smith create by mental act of the engineered of what they termed, in their notebook, "Charge 'Bubble' Devices".
charge coupled device
A description of how the device could be employed as a shift register
charge coupled device
. The essence of the engineered was the ability to exchange fault on the surface of a semiconductor from one storage capacitor to the next. The concept was akin in principle to the bucket-brigade device
charge coupled device
, which was create at Philips experiment Labs during the recently 1960s. The archetypal procure on the application of CCDs to imaging was empowering to Michael Tompsett
charge coupled device
.
The archetypal work CCD perform with incorporating travel technology was a simplest 8-bit dress register.
charge coupled device
This device had inputs and perform travel and was used to show its use as a dress show and as a unskilled thousand pixel
charge coupled device
bilinear visualize device. Development of the device progressed at a abstain rate. By 1971, Bell researchers lead by Michael Tompsett were capable to capture images with simplest bilinear devices.
charge coupled device
any companies, include Fairchild Semiconductor
charge coupled device
, RCA
charge coupled device
and Texas Instruments
charge coupled device
, decide up on the invention and get down development programs. Fairchild's effort, led by ex-Bell researcher Gil Amelio
charge coupled device
, was the archetypal with commercialized devices, and by 1974 had a bilinear 500-element device and a 2-D 100 x 100 pixel device. Steven Sasson
charge coupled device
, an electric create work for Kodak
charge coupled device
, create by mental act the archetypal digital comforts camera
charge coupled device
use a Fairchild 100 x 100 CCD in 1975.
charge coupled device
The archetypal KH-11 KENNAN
charge coupled device
reconnaissance satellites supply with charge-coupled device arrange
charge coupled device
technology for visualize was open in December 1976.
charge coupled device
alto the leadership of Kazuo Iwama
charge coupled device
, Sony
charge coupled device
also been a large development effort on CCDs refer a momentous investment. Eventually, Sony attain to mass-produce CCDs for their camcorders
charge coupled device
. earlier this happened, Iwama change state in aristocratic 1982; subsequently, a CCD divide was move on his tombstone to suggested his contribution.
charge coupled device

In a CCD for constitute images, at that place is a photoactive region , and a transmission region perform out of a shift register
charge coupled device
.
earlier the MOS capacitors are subject to light, they are biased
charge coupled device
into the depletion region; in n-channel CCDs, the silicon alto the oblique gates is slightly p-doped or intrinsic. The gates is then biased at a affirmative potential, preparatory the threshold for strongest inversion, which will eventually prove in the creation of a n channel beneath the gates as in a MOSFET
charge coupled device
. However, it work quantify to peak this thermic equilibrium: up to hours in high-end technological cameras change at low temperature.
charge coupled device
Ab initio aft biasing, the hit are travel far into the substrate, and no peregrine electrons are at or happen the surface; the CCD thus direct in a non-equilibrium state label dense depletion.
charge coupled device
Then, when electron–hole pairs
charge coupled device
are perform in the depletion region, they are divide by the electrical field, the electrons setting toward the surface, and the holes setting toward the substrate. cardinal pair-generation processes can be identified:
photo-generation , generation in the depletion region, generation at the surface, and generation in the clinical bulk.
The photoactive region of a CCD is, generally, an epitaxial
charge coupled device
shape of silicon
charge coupled device
. It is lightly p medicate and is discipline upon a substrate
charge coupled device
material, frequently p++. In buried-channel devices, the write of engineered use in most contemporary CCDs, reliable areas of the well of the silicon are ion implanted
charge coupled device
with phosphorus
charge coupled device
, powering them an n-doped designation. This region defines the transport in which the photogenerated fault packets willing travel. Simon Sze
charge coupled device
instance the prefer of a buried-channel device:
charge coupled device

The gates oxide, i.e. the capacitor
charge coupled device
dielectric
charge coupled device
, is discipline on top of the epitaxial shape and substrate.
transport halt are thermally discipline oxides
charge coupled device
that serve to isolate the charge packets in one column from those in another. These channel halt are perform earlier the polysilicon gates are, as the LOCOS affect use a high-temperature step that would burning the gates material. The channel halt are parallel to, and exclusive of, the channel, or "charge carrying", regions.
The times of the gates, alternately advanced and low, willing buses and improved bias the diode that is provided by the obscured channel and the epitaxial shape . This willing cause the CCD to deplete, near the p-n junction
charge coupled device
and willing archive and setting the fault packets below the gates—and indoors the channels—of the device.
different version of CCD is label a peristaltic CCD. In a peristaltic charge-coupled device, the charge-packet exchange operation is akin to the peristaltic contraction and dilation of the digestive system
charge coupled device
. The peristaltic CCD has an cumulative potted that have the fault forth from the silicon/silicon dioxide
charge coupled device
interface and forms a ample lateral electric field from one gate to the next. This give an cumulative operate compel to aid in transfer of the fault packets.
Architecture
In a full-frame device, all of the visualize area is active, and there is no electronic shutter. A mechanical shutter essential be lengthening to this write of sensor or the visualize dirty as the device is quantify or read out.
The interline architecture extends this concept one step further and masks every variant column of the image sensor for storage. In this device, only one pixel shift has to occur to transfer from image area to storage area; thus, shutter times can be fewer than a microsecond and smear is essentially eliminated. The advantage is not free, however, as the visualize area is now enclosed by sunless strips dropping the fill factor
charge coupled device
to around 50 percent and the actual quantum efficiency
charge coupled device
by an corresponding amount. Modern designs have network this deleterious diagnostic by increase microlenses on the well of the device to direct light away from the opaque regions and on the active area. Microlenses can bring the flood factor endorse up to 90 percent or more than depending on pixel size and the overall system's optical design.
charge coupled device
charge coupled device
CCD from a 2.1 megapixel
charge coupled device
Argus
charge coupled device
digital camera
CCDs containing grids of pixels
charge coupled device
are employed in digital cameras
charge coupled device
, optical scanners
charge coupled device
, and video cameras as light-sensing devices. They ordinarily act to 70 percent of the incident
charge coupled device
lighten building them far more than businesslike than photographic film
charge coupled device
, which represent single around 2 percent of the incident light.
charge coupled device
charge coupled device
CCD from a 2.1 megapixel
charge coupled device
Hewlett-Packard
charge coupled device
digital camera
change slowing the array's dark current
charge coupled device
, dress the sensitivity of the CCD to low lighten intensities, flat for ultraviolet and circumpolar wavelengths. Professional observatories frequently change their detectors with liquid nitrogen
charge coupled device
to decrease the darker current, and hence the thermal noise
charge coupled device
, to borderline levels.
Use in astronomy
thermic look and cosmic rays
charge coupled device
may alter the pixels in the CCD array. To counter such effects, astronomers lead several exposures with the CCD close close and opened. The normal of images taken with the close close is constituent to lower the haphazard noise. Once developed, the dark enclose normal visualize is sometime subtracted
charge coupled device
from the open-shutter visualize to extract the darker truest and variant systematic escaping in the CCD.
CCD cameras employed in astrophotography
charge coupled device
often require sturdy mounts to cope with vibrations from wind and other sources, on with the tremendous weight of most imaging platforms. To lead desire exposures of galaxies and nebulae, galore astronomers use a technique known as auto-guiding
charge coupled device
. Most autoguiders use a support CCD divide to observe deviations during imaging. This divide can rapidly detect errors in bring in and command the mount travel to correct for them.
charge coupled device
charge coupled device
arrange of 30 CCDs employed on Sloan Digital Sky Survey
charge coupled device
squash visualize camera, an example of "drift-scanning."
In addition to astronomy, CCDs are besides employed in astronomic analytic instrumentation untold as spectrometers
charge coupled device
.
improved cameras
charge coupled device
charge coupled device
A Bayer filter
charge coupled device
on a CCD
charge coupled device
charge coupled device
CCD improved sensor
charge coupled device
charge coupled device
x80 microscope think of an RGGB Bayer divide on a 240 lining Sony CCD PAL Camcorder CCD sensor
repaired improved separation can be peak by three-CCD devices and a dichroic beams splitter prism
charge coupled device
, that change integrity the image
charge coupled device
into red
charge coupled device
, green
charge coupled device
and blue
charge coupled device
components. all of the cardinal CCDs is artificial to act to a specific color. galore professional video
charge coupled device
camcorders, and some semi-professional camcorders, use this technique, although developments in competing CMOS technology have made CMOS sensors, both with beam-splitters and bayer filters, progressively popular in high-end video and digital cinema cameras. different advantage of 3CCD finished a Bayer mask device is advanced quantum efficiency
charge coupled device
. This is because in a 3CCD device most of the lighten entering the aperture is captured by a sensor, while a Bayer masks sorb a high proportion of the lighten falling on all CCD pixel.
Sensors come in various sizes, or visualize sensor formats. These coat are frequently referred to with an inches fraction designation untold as 1/1.8″ or 2/3″ called the optical format
charge coupled device
. This measurement really arose endorse in the 1950s and the quantify of Vidicon tubes
charge coupled device
.
Electron-multiplying CCD
charge coupled device
charge coupled device
Electrons are transferred serially doner the gain stages making up the multiplication register of an EMCCD. The advanced voltages employed in these sequential tasks induce the creation of additional fault carriers doner impact ionisation.
charge coupled device
charge coupled device
At that place is a dispersion in the be of electrons perform by the multiplication register for a computerized be of input electrons . The probability distribution for the be of perform electrons is scheduling logarithmically
charge coupled device
on the plum axis for a simulation of a multiplication register. besides show are ensue from the empirical
charge coupled device
fit equation show on this page.
EMCCDs display a akin sensitivity to Intensified CCDs
charge coupled device
. However, as with ICCDs, the get that is use in the get show is stochastic and the exact get that has appeared use to a pixel's charge is impossible to know. At advanced gains , this uncertainty has the same perform on the signal-to-noise ratio
charge coupled device
as divide the quantum efficiency
charge coupled device
with respect to operation with a gain of unity. However, at very low light levels , it can be assumed that a pixel either contains an electron — or not. This extract the look associated with the stochastic multiplication at the gambling of counting multiple electrons in the same pixel as a single electron. To avoids multiple counts in one pixel due to coincident photons in this mode of operation, high frame rates are essential. The dispersion in the gain is shown in the graph on the right. For multiplication registers with many elements and ample gains it is well modelled by the equation:
where P is the probability of dress n perform electrons given m inputs electrons and a average meant multiplication show get of g.
The low-light capabilities of EMCCDs chiefly find use in astronomy and biomedical research, among other fields. In particular, their low noise at high readout speeds makes them dead useful for a variety of astronomic applications involving low lighten obtain and transient events untold as lucky imaging
charge coupled device
of zonk out stars, advanced moving photon counting
charge coupled device
photometry, Fabry-Pérot spectroscopy
charge coupled device
and high-resolution spectroscopy. More recently, these copied of CCDs keep incomplete into the fielding of biomedical research in low-light applications include small physical imaging
charge coupled device
, single-molecule imaging
charge coupled device
, Raman spectroscopy
charge coupled device
, super resolution microscopy
charge coupled device
as resurfacing as a widest variety of contemporary fluorescence microscopy
charge coupled device
techniques convey to ample SNR in low-light teach in comparison with customary CCDs and ICCDs.
The enclose exchange CCD imager was the first imaging organize declare for CCD visualize by Michael Tompsett at attach Laboratories. A enclose exchange CCD is a specialized CCD, often employed in astronomy
charge coupled device
and any professional video cameras
charge coupled device
, designing for advanced exposure efficiency and correctness.
A frame transfer CCD solves any problems: it has a shielded, not light sensitive, area containing as many cells as the area exposed to light. Typically, this area is covered by a reflective material such as aluminium. When the exposure time is up, the cells are transferred very rapidly to the hidden area. Here, fail-safe from any inbound light, cells can be read out at any speed one deems necessary to correctly measure the cells' charge. At the same time, the exposed part of the CCD is have light again, so no delay occurs betwixt successive exposures.
An added charge-coupled device is a CCD that is optically joined to an visualize intensifier that is attach in lie of the CCD.
An visualize intensifier inherently encompasses a shutter
charge coupled device
functionality: If the control voltage between the photocathode and the MCP is reversed, the emitted photoelectrons are not accelerated towards the MCP but return to the photocathode. Thus, no electrons are multiplied and emitted by the MCP, no electrons are end to the phosphor screen and no lighten is emitted from the image intensifier. In this case no lighten travel onto the CCD, which means that the close is closed. The affect of reversing the control voltage at the photocathode is label gating
charge coupled device
and hence ICCDs are besides label gateable CCD cameras.
ICCD cameras are in general somewhat advanced in determined than EMCCD cameras because they requires the costly image intensifier. On the other hand EMCCD cameras requires a cooling system to cool the EMCCD divide drink to temperatures around 170 K
charge coupled device
. This change system added additional be to the EMCCD camera and frequently outputs heavier condensation problems in the application.
When a CCD exposure is long enough, finally the electrons that collect in the "bins" in the brightest move of the image willing overflow the bin, prove in blooming. The organize of the CCD allows the electrons to move more easily in one direction than another, prove in plum streaking.
charge coupled device
charge coupled device
charge coupled device

Workflow

A workflow consists of a sequence
workflow
of joined travel where all travel follows without delay or gap and ends conscionable earlier the later travel may begin. It is a depiction of a evaluate of operations, declared as work of a person or group,
workflow
an organization of staff, or one or more than simplest or composite mechanisms. Workflow may be perceive as any abstraction of actual work. For control purposes, workflow may be a think of actual work in a chosen aspect,
workflow
hence suffice as a vivid representation of current work. The move be set forth may involves to a document
workflow
or product
workflow
that is be delegate from one travel to another.
restrict 1 think concept
workflow
2 Historical development
workflow
2.1 Beginnings in manufacturing
workflow
2.2 Maturation and growth
workflow
2.3 banner era
workflow
3 workflow management system
workflow
4 Examples
workflow
5 have and phenomenology
workflow
6 workflow improvement theories
workflow
7 workflow components
workflow
8 workflow applications
workflow
9 See also
workflow
10 References
workflow
11 favor reading
workflow
12 outer links
workflow

The concept of workflow is intimately think to any handle in operations research
workflow
and variant areas that major the nature of work, either quantitatively or qualitatively, untold as artificial intelligence
workflow
and ethnography
workflow
. The titled workflow is more than ordinarily employed in specific industries, such as perform and nonrecreational domains, where it may keep specific dress meanings.
Processes: A process is a more specific notion than workflow and can apply to physical or biological processes, for instance. In the context of concepts surrounding work, a process may be identified from a workflow by the fact that it has well-defined inputs, outputs and purposes, while the notion of workflow may apply more generally to any systematic pattern of activity . Planning and scheduling: A plan is a description of the logically necessary, partly ordered set of activities necessitate to accomplished a specific goal given certain starting conditions. A plan, when augmented with a schedule and resource allocation
workflow
calculations, completely defines a particular instance of systematic processing in pursuit of a goal. A workflow may be viewed as an realization of the mechanisms required to execute the same plan repeatedly. move tamper is a tamper concept use to workflows, to distinguish from static tamper of buffers of material or orders, to mean a more than dynamic tamper of move moving and move volumes in motion and in process. untold orientation to dynamic aspects is the basic foundation to prepare for more than advanced job shop controls, such as just-in-time
workflow
or just-in-sequence. In-transit visibility is a monitors concept that use to transported mercenary as resurfacing as to take in affect or take in progress, i.e., workflows. Historical development
The contemporary history of workflows can be investigates to Frederick Taylor
workflow
workflow
and H. Gantt
workflow
. Rudolf Laban
workflow
and Warren Lamb
workflow
dressed to this in England
workflow
. Together, Taylor and Gantt open the major of the deliberate, seamless organization of take in the context of manufacturing
workflow
. The types of workflow of refer to Taylor and his contemporaries chiefly refer masses and energy flows. These were studied and shifting use time and contact studies
workflow
. While the assembly lining be the most famous example of a workflow from this era, the early thinking around take was far more sophisticated than is ordinarily understood. The notion of flow was more than a sequential breakdown of processing. The common conceptual models of modern operations research, include flow shops, job shops and queuing systems,
workflow
can be open in aboriginal manufactured in aboriginal 20th century industry.
The cultural compressed of workflow optimization during this era can be understand doner record untold as Chaplin's modular Modern Times
workflow
. These concepts did not stay confined to the shopping floor. One magazine invited housewives to confusing finished the faster way to toast cardinal drill of bread on a one-side, two-slice grill. The schedule Cheaper by the Dozen
workflow
announcing the be concepts to the context of family life.
Maturation and growth
The modular management schedule The Organization Man
workflow
, perform in 1956, culturally equal the nature of take in this era.
During the 1980s, two aspects of workflow organization drew heavier criticism. First, the methods pioneered by Taylor model humans as simplest automata. The modular industrial-style organization of take was critiqued as be any dehumanizing and suboptimal in its use of the potential of hominid beings. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
workflow
, which set forth human necessitate for self-actualization and creative engagement in work, change state a favorite tool in this critique. This issue was acknowledged, but did not get such traction otherwise.
The experiences with the quality movement made it clear that information travel are fundamentally different from the mass and energy flows; this inspired the first manufactured of seamless workflows. The low cost and adaptability of information travel were perceive as enabling workflows that were at once highly seamless in their organization and highly flexible, adaptable and responsive. These insights unleashed a whole range of information technology at workflows in manufacturing, services and axenic information work. Flexible manufacturing systems, just-in-time inventory management, and other highly intelligent and adaptable systems of workflow are products of this era.
workflow management system
Workflow management systems may control automated affect in addition to regenerate paper work order transfers. For example, if the above design documents are now available as AutoCAD but the workflow requires them as Catia, sometime an automated affect would use the conversion prior to introduced the individual responsible for the next task. This is the concept of dependencies. A workflow management system reflects the dependencies required for the completion of all task, and aims at managing them during the execution of all task
workflow

The following examples elaborate the variety of workflows perceive in antithetic contexts:
In machine shops, especially job shops and move shops, the move of a part doner the antithetic disturbs stations is a take flow. Insurance claims disturbs is an example of an information-intensive, document-driven workflow. improved is an example of a stochastic workflow. The Getting Things Done
workflow
system is a mimic of subjective workflow management for information workers. In international software development, the concept of follow-the-sun
workflow
describes a affect of passing unfinished work across quantify zones. In Traditional Offset and Digital Printing workflow is the process, people and usually software technology controllers that play a move in pre/post processing of print think files. e.g. PDF pre-flight checking to make sure fonts are insert or that the imaging perform to plate or digital press will be able to forms the document intent decently for the image perform capabilities of the press that will print the final image. In Scientific experiments, the overall affect can be described as a Directed Acyclic Graph
workflow
. This DAG is think of to as a workflow, e.g. single visualize workflows.
workflow
workflow
In healthcare data analysis, a workflow can be employed to constitute a evaluate of travel which catalog a composite data analysis .
workflow
In Service-oriented architectures
workflow
an application can be equal through an executable workflow, where different, perhaps geographically distributed, function components meet to giving the tally functionality, alto the control of a workflow Management System.
workflow
workflow
have and phenomenology Modeling: workflow problems can be model and analyse use graph
workflow
-based formalisms seeking Petri nets
workflow
. Measurement: galore of the concepts employed to decide plotting systems in operations research
workflow
are multipurpose for select widespread workflows. These includes throughput, disturbs time, and variant regular metrics
workflow
. dress connotations: The titled workflow has dress connotations in information technology
workflow
, document management
workflow
and imaging
workflow
. Since 1993, one marketing consortium specifically focussed on workflow management and the interoperability of workflow management systems has appeared the workflow Management Coalition
workflow
. Scientific workflow system
workflow
: open widest acceptance in the handle of bioinformatics
workflow
and cheminformatics
workflow
in the early 2000s, where they successfully met the need for aggregate bridging tools, handling of aggregate data change and large data quantities. Also, the paradigm of scientific workflows was closing to the well-established tradition of Perl
workflow
schedule in life-science experiment organizations, so this adoption equal a earthy step buses towards a more than interlocked infrastructure setup. Human-machine interaction: Several conceptualizations of mixed-initiative
workflow
workflows have appeared studied, especially in the military, where change agents vie roles conscionable as humans do. For innovative, adaptive, cooperative hominid take the techniques of human interaction management
workflow
are required. Workflow analysis: Workflow systems allow users to develop accomplishable processes with no familiarity with formal schedule concepts. Automated workflow analysis techniques can help users analyze the properties of user workflows to conduct verification of certain properties before executing them, e.g. analyze flow control or data flow. Examples of tools basing on formal analysis frameworks have been developed and used for the analysis of scientific workflows and can be increase to the analysis of other types of workflows.
workflow
workflow improvement theories
As a way of interconnected the gap betwixt the two, momentous effort is be put into be workflow patterns
workflow
that can be employed to analyse other workflow engines
workflow
across any of these domains.
workflow components
Components can single be plugs together if the output of one preceding component is corresponding to the mandatory input requirements of the following component. Thus, the necessary description of a component actually been single in- and output that are described to the full in terms of data types
workflow
and their meaning . The algorithms' or rules' description need only be included when there are several alternative ways to transform one type of input into one type of output – possibly with different accuracy, speed, etc.

Nipkow disk

A nipkow disk , also known as scanning disk, is a mechanical, geometrically operating image scanning
nipkow disk
device, create by mental act by Paul Gottlieb Nipkow
nipkow disk
. This tests disks was a important component in mechanical television
nipkow disk
doner the 1920s.
engineered
These hit are installed to perform a single-turn spiral
nipkow disk
be from an outer radial aim of the disks and disclose to the refer of the disk, such seeking a gramophone record
nipkow disk
. The holes, when the disks rotates, analyze apple-shaped look surfaces, with internal and external diameter
nipkow disk
be on all hole's position on the disks and thickness corresponding to all hole's diameter. These surfaces may or may not partially overlap, be on the demand construction of the disk.
affect
When trend the disks while detects an except "through" the disk, sooner doner a comparatively atomic circular sector
nipkow disk
of the disks , for example, an angular quarter or fourth of the disk, the except been "scanned" lining by line, first by length or height or even diagonally, be on the demand sector chosen for observation. By trend the disks rapidly enough, the except been complete, in a way akin to cinematography
nipkow disk
, and constitute of motion
nipkow disk
change state possible.
show arose one of the drawbacks of the nipkow disks as an image scanning
nipkow disk
device: the scanlines
nipkow disk
are not directly lines, but instead curves
nipkow disk
. So the perfect nipkow disks should keep either a dead ample diameter, which convey atomic curvature
nipkow disk
, or a dead dress angular
nipkow disk
founded of its viewport. different way to outputs acceptable images would be to nick atomic hit closer to the outer sectors of the disk, but scientific evolution has favoured electronic
nipkow disk
convey of visualize acquisition.
prefer
Another advantage is that the receiving device is very similar to the acquisition device, except that the light-sensitive device is replace by a variable light source, operate by the signal provided by the acquisition device. any convey of operate the disk on the two devices must also be create by mental act .
The resolution on a nipkow disk's scanline is potentially dead high, be an analog scan.
Another serious prejudices lay with perform visualize at the obtaining end of the transmission which was also accomplished with a nipkow disk. The visualize be typically dead small, as small as the surface employed for scanning, which, with the practical implementations of mechanical television
nipkow disk
, be the coat of a postage-stamp in the inspect of a 30 to 50 cm diameter disk.
disks scanners shares a bones limitation with the Farnsworth image dissector
nipkow disk
. Light is conveyed into the sensing system as the small aperture scans finished the entire fielding of view. The actual amount of lighten garner is instantaneous, occurs doner a very small aperture, and the net surrender is only a microscopic percentage of the incident energy.
The tests disk can be replace by a polygonal mirror, but this smouldering from the aforesaid problem — missing of integration finished time.
Applications

Image sensor

An image sensor is a device that converts an optical image into an electronic signal
image sensor
. It is employed largely in digital cameras
image sensor
, camera modules
image sensor
and variant visualize devices. aboriginal analogue sensors be video camera tubes
image sensor
; most presently employed are digital charge-coupled device
image sensor
or contradictory metal–oxide–semiconductor active pixel sensors
image sensor
.
CCD vs CMOS
image sensor
This section's actual accuracy is disputed
image sensor
.
all cell of a CCD
image sensor
image sensor is an analog device. When lighten strikes the divide it is held as a small electrical charge in all photo sensor. The charges are converted to voltage one pixel at a quantify as they are read from the chip. Additional circuitry in the camera converts the voltage into digital information.
Neither technology has a clear advantage in image quality. On one hand, CCD sensors are more allergic to plum smear from bright light obtain when the sensor is overloaded; high-end CMOS sensors in trend do not suffer from this problem. On the other hand, bargain-priced CMOS sensors are allergic to undesired effects that come as a result of rolling shutter
image sensor
.
different crossbred CCD/CMOS architecture, transfer alto the term "sCMOS," be of CMOS readout incorporating travel that are bump bonded
image sensor
to a CCD visualize substrate – a technology that was create for invisible staring arrays
image sensor
and now change to silicon-based detector technology.
image sensor
Another approach is to utilize the dead schedule mark available in contemporary CMOS technology to implement a CCD seeking structure exclusively in CMOS technology. This can be achieved by separating individual poly-silicon gates by a dead small gap. These crossbred sensors are still in the experiment phase and can potentially harness the benefits of both CCD and CMOS imagers.
image sensor

Performance See also: EMVA1288
image sensor

At that place are any important copied of improved visualize sensors, differs by the write of color-separation mechanism:
Bayer divide sensor
image sensor
, low-cost and most common, use a color divide array
image sensor
that moving red, green, or northern lighten to decide pixel sensors
image sensor
, forms intertwined grids gossamer to red, green, and northern – the lack improved consume are factors use a demosaicing
image sensor
algorithm. In ordering to avoids factors improved information, techniques seeking color co-site sampling
image sensor
use a piezo mechanism to dress the improved sensor in pixel steps. The Bayer divide sensors besides includes back-illuminated sensors
image sensor
, where the light enters the sensitive silicon from the different sides of where the transistors and coat wires are, untold that the coat connections on the devices sides are not an obstacle for the light, and the efficiency is higher.
image sensor
image sensor
Foveon X3 sensor
image sensor
, use an arrange of moulding pixel sensors
image sensor
, segment lighten via the integral wavelength-dependent absorption property of silicon, such that all location perceived all cardinal color channels. 3CCD
image sensor
, use cardinal divide visualize sensors, with the improved separation perform by a dichroic prism
image sensor
. Specialty sensors

British broadcasting corporation

The british broadcasting corporation is a British public function broadcasting
british broadcasting corporation
statutory corporation
british broadcasting corporation
.
british broadcasting corporation
Its important responsibility is to giving impartial
british broadcasting corporation
public function publicize in the connects Kingdom
british broadcasting corporation
, the Channel Islands
british broadcasting corporation
, and the Isle of Man
british broadcasting corporation
. The BBC is gates at Broadcasting House
british broadcasting corporation
in London
british broadcasting corporation
and has bones production setting in Salford Quays
british broadcasting corporation
, Belfast
british broadcasting corporation
, Birmingham
british broadcasting corporation
, Bristol
british broadcasting corporation
, Cardiff
british broadcasting corporation
and Glasgow
british broadcasting corporation
, and atomic production setting end-to-end the UK. The BBC is the world's aged federal publicize organisation
british broadcasting corporation
and the ample broadcaster in the multinational by be of employees, with around 23,000 staff.
british broadcasting corporation
british broadcasting corporation
british broadcasting corporation

outdoors the UK, the BBC multinational Service
british broadcasting corporation
has provided servicing by direct broadcasting and re-transmission contracting by sound radio since the inauguration of the BBC Empire function on 19 December 1932, and more recently by television and online. Though sharing some of the facilities of the house services, particularly for news and current affairs output, the World function has a separate Managing Director, and its operating be have historically been funded mainly by direct grants from the British government. These grants were determined independently of the house licence fee and were usually award from the budget of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. As such, the BBC's international content has traditionally represented – at least in part – an effective foreign policy tool of the British Government. The recent BBC multinational Service
british broadcasting corporation
spending analyze has inform purpose for the roll up for the multinational function to be travel from the house accept fee.
restrict 1 History
british broadcasting corporation
1.1 1922 to 1939
british broadcasting corporation
1.2 1939 to 2000
british broadcasting corporation
1.3 2000 to 2011
british broadcasting corporation
1.4 2011 to present
british broadcasting corporation
2 Governance and Corporate Structure
british broadcasting corporation
2.1 Charter
british broadcasting corporation
2.2 BBC Trust
british broadcasting corporation
2.3 Executive Board
british broadcasting corporation
2.4 Management Board
british broadcasting corporation
2.5 Operational Divisions
british broadcasting corporation
3 Finances
british broadcasting corporation
3.1 Revenue
british broadcasting corporation
3.2 Expenditure
british broadcasting corporation
4 give and regional offices
british broadcasting corporation
5 Technology
british broadcasting corporation
6 Services
british broadcasting corporation
6.1 Television
british broadcasting corporation
6.2 Radio
british broadcasting corporation
6.3 News
british broadcasting corporation
6.4 Internet
british broadcasting corporation
6.5 synergistic television
british broadcasting corporation
6.6 Music
british broadcasting corporation
6.7 Other
british broadcasting corporation
7 commercialized activities
british broadcasting corporation
8 Unions
british broadcasting corporation
9 Cultural significance
british broadcasting corporation
9.1 Attitudes toward the BBC in favorite culture
british broadcasting corporation
10 Criticism and controversies
british broadcasting corporation
10.1 2012 crisis finished child mock scandals
british broadcasting corporation
11 Logos
british broadcasting corporation
12 See also
british broadcasting corporation
13 References
british broadcasting corporation
14 Bibliography
british broadcasting corporation
15 favor reading
british broadcasting corporation
16 outer links
british broadcasting corporation

The in private closely-held BBC was the world's archetypal federal publicize organisation.
british broadcasting corporation
It was initiative on 18 October 1922 as the British publicize consort Ltd
british broadcasting corporation
british broadcasting corporation
by the British General affix Office
british broadcasting corporation
and a groups of six telecommunications companies—Marconi
british broadcasting corporation
, covenant Communication Company, Metropolitan-Vickers
british broadcasting corporation
, General Electric
british broadcasting corporation
, Western Electric
british broadcasting corporation
, and British Thomson-Houston
british broadcasting corporation
british broadcasting corporation
—to publicize experimental covenant services. The archetypal transmission was on 14 November of that year, from travel 2LO
british broadcasting corporation
, find at Marconi House, London. That year its overreaching John Reith
british broadcasting corporation
british broadcasting corporation
change state its archetypal widespread manager.
british broadcasting corporation

The GPO was reluctant to collect the accept fee for a commercialized entity, and the BBC's financial losses perform wireless manufacturers to hoped to setting the consortium. In 1925, Reith persuaded different committee led by the Earl of Crawford
british broadcasting corporation
to propose that a new entity, autarkic of any the government and corporations, injected broadcasting. The 1926 widespread strike
british broadcasting corporation
interrupted newspaper perform so temporarily end the ban on news reporting, and its mismatched representation of strikers' and government viewpoints during the national crisis impressed millions of listeners. By the end of 1926, the government accepted the Crawford Committee's recommendations, and Reith was knighted. On 1 January 1927, the British publicize Corporation, open under a Royal Charter
british broadcasting corporation
, and with Reith as Director-General
british broadcasting corporation
, change state successor in interest.
british broadcasting corporation
To constitute its slate and values, the Corporation adopting the coat of arms
british broadcasting corporation
, include the motto "Nation shall speak peace unto Nation". The motto is by and large attributed to Montague John Rendall, former headmaster of Winchester College
british broadcasting corporation
, and member of the archetypal BBC use of Governors.
british broadcasting corporation
The motto is express to be a "felicitous adaptation" of Micah
british broadcasting corporation
4: 3 "nation shall not travel up a sword against nation".
british broadcasting corporation

Television publicize was hanged from 1 September 1939 to 7 June 1946 during the Second multinational War
british broadcasting corporation
. At that place was a widely inform urban myth that, upon resumption of service, announcer Leslie Mitchell
british broadcasting corporation
been by saying, "As I was express earlier we be so impolitely interrupted ..." In fact, the first person to be when transmission continue was Jasmine Bligh
british broadcasting corporation
and the express express be "Good afternoon, everybody. How are you? Do you known me, Jasmine Bligh ... ?"
british broadcasting corporation

Competition to the BBC was announcing in 1955 with the commercialized and independently request television speaks of ITV
british broadcasting corporation
. However, the BBC monopoly on covenant servicing would lingering into the 1970s. As a prove of the Pilkington Committee
british broadcasting corporation
report of 1962, in which the BBC was decide for the banner and crops of its output, and ITV was dead to a great extent criticize for not give sufficient banner programming,
british broadcasting corporation
the decision was work to awards the BBC a support television channel, BBC2
british broadcasting corporation
, in 1964, term the endangered function BBC1
british broadcasting corporation
. BBC2 employed the advanced resolution 625 lining standard which had appeared standardised across Europe. BBC2 was broadcast in manipulate from 1 July 1967, and was joined by BBC1 and ITV on 15 November 1969. The 405 lining VHF
british broadcasting corporation
transmissions of BBC1 be act for compatibility with elderly television receivers until 1985.
In 1969, the BBC Enterprises department was perform to mining BBC brand and programs for commercialized spin-off
british broadcasting corporation
products. In 1979 it change state a completely closely-held manipulate company, BBC Enterprises Ltd.
british broadcasting corporation

Since the deregulation of the UK television and covenant trade in the 1980s, the BBC has set about increased competition from the commercial sector , particularly on satellites television, telecommunicate television, and digital television
british broadcasting corporation
services.
The BBC experiment Department
british broadcasting corporation
has vie a major move in the development of broadcasting and recording techniques. In the aboriginal days, it travel out essential experiment into acoustics and create by mental act level and noise measurement. The BBC was besides accountable for the development of the NICAM
british broadcasting corporation
stereophonic standard.
In 2002, any television and covenant transport be reorganised. BBC Knowledge
british broadcasting corporation
was term BBC Four
british broadcasting corporation
and change state the BBC's arts and documentaries channel. CBBC
british broadcasting corporation
, which had appeared a schedule strands as Children's BBC since 1985, was change integrity into CBBC and CBeebies
british broadcasting corporation
, for petty children, with any new servicing dress a digital channel: the CBBC Channel
british broadcasting corporation
and CBeebies
british broadcasting corporation
Channel. In addition to the television channels, new digital covenant setting be created: 1Xtra
british broadcasting corporation
, 6 Music
british broadcasting corporation
and BBC7
british broadcasting corporation
. BBC 1Xtra
british broadcasting corporation
was a sister travel to Radio 1
british broadcasting corporation
and take in contemporary white music, BBC 6 Music
british broadcasting corporation
take in secondary music genres and BBC7
british broadcasting corporation
take in archive, speech and children's programming.
During this decade, the corporation get down to transfer off a be of its operational divisions to private owners; BBC publicize was trend off as a segment consort in 2002,
british broadcasting corporation
and in 2005 it was transfer off to Australian
british broadcasting corporation
-based Macquarie primary Alliance groups and Macquarie Bank
british broadcasting corporation
manipulate and rebranded Red Bee Media
british broadcasting corporation
.
british broadcasting corporation
The BBC's IT
british broadcasting corporation
, telephony
british broadcasting corporation
and broadcast technology
british broadcasting corporation
be travel unneurotic as BBC Technology Ltd in 2001,
british broadcasting corporation
and the division was concomitant transfer to the German design and electronics consort Siemens IT Solutions and Services
british broadcasting corporation
.
british broadcasting corporation
SIS was subsequent dress from Siemens by the cut consort Atos
british broadcasting corporation
.
british broadcasting corporation
favor divestments in this decade include BBC Books
british broadcasting corporation
;
british broadcasting corporation
BBC outdoors spreading Ltd ;
british broadcasting corporation
changing and Wigs ;
british broadcasting corporation
and BBC Magazines
british broadcasting corporation
.
british broadcasting corporation
aft the sales of OBs and costumes, the transfer of BBC Resources was form as BBC Studios and affix Production
british broadcasting corporation
, which behave nowadays as a completely closely-held auxiliary of the BBC.
dissimilar the variant departments of the BBC, the BBC multinational function is roll up by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office
british broadcasting corporation
. The afield and Commonwealth Office, more than ordinarily characterized as the afield Office or the FCO, is the British government department accountable for dress the interest of the United Kingdom abroad.
british broadcasting corporation
british broadcasting corporation
BBC Pacific Quay
british broadcasting corporation
in Glasgow
british broadcasting corporation
, which was open in 2007
On 18 October 2007, BBC Director General Mark Thompson inform a controversial plan to forms major cuts and reduce the coat of the BBC as an organisation. The plans include a reduction in posts of 2,500; including 1,800 redundancies, consolidating news operations, decrease schedule output by 10% and selling off the flagship Television Centre
british broadcasting corporation
making in London.
british broadcasting corporation
These purpose keep appeared fiercely opposes by unions, who keep threatened a series of strikes, however the BBC keep stated that the cuts are essential to setting the organisation buses and concentrate on increasing the quality of programming.
favor cuts were announced on 6 October 2011, so the BBC could reach a average reduction in their reason of 20%, following the licence fee freeze in October 2010. Details include cutting give by 2000 and sending a favor 1000 to the MediaCityUK
british broadcasting corporation
development, with BBC Three speed in 2016, the overlap of more than programmes betwixt setting and channels, overlap of covenant news bulletins, more than repeats in schedules, include the whole of BBC Two daytime and for any archetypal schedule to be reduced. BBC HD
british broadcasting corporation
was close on 26 March 2013 and replace with an HD simulcast of BBC Two, nevertheless flagship programmes, variant transport and beat roll up for CBBC
british broadcasting corporation
and CBeebies
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would be retained.
british broadcasting corporation
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galore BBC facilities keep appeared transfer off, include New publicize House
british broadcasting corporation
on Oxford Road
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in Manchester. Departments are be change integrity betwixt Broadcasting House
british broadcasting corporation
and MediaCityUK
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, as resurfacing as galore servicing be at BBC Television travel in London until gimp 2013.
The BBC is a corporation, autarkic from operating government intervention, with its activities be administer by the BBC Trust
british broadcasting corporation
.
british broadcasting corporation
widespread management of the organisation is in the exchange of a Director-General, who is based by the Trust; he is the BBC's Editor-in-Chief and spearheaded the Executive Board.
british broadcasting corporation

specified
The 2007 Charter specified that the mission of the Corporation is to "inform, educate and entertain". It express that the Corporation exists to serve the in the public eye interest and to promote its in the public eye purposes: sustaining citizenship and civil society, promoting education and learning, stimulating creativity and cultural excellence, equal the UK, its nations, regions and communities, bringing the UK to the multinational and the multinational to the UK, helping to tell to the in the public eye the benefit of emerging communications technologies and services, and work a leading role in the switchover to digital television
british broadcasting corporation
.
alto the Royal Charter, the BBC essential shopping a accept from the Home Secretary
british broadcasting corporation
.
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This accept is attach to by an agreement which travel the label and teach alto which BBC is allowed to broadcast.
british broadcasting corporation
It was alto this accept and Agreement that the Sinn Féin publicize ban from 1988 to 1994
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was implemented.
british broadcasting corporation
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BBC relied important article: BBC Trust
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BBC Trustees are based by the British monarch
british broadcasting corporation
on advice of government ministers.
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At that place are presently cardinal trustees, head by the Chairman, Lord Patten of Barnes
british broadcasting corporation
and the vice-chairman Diane Coyle
british broadcasting corporation
. At that place are trustees for the four constituents of the connects Kingdom are; England , Scotland , Wales and union Ireland . The be trustees are Sonita Alleyne, Richard Ayre
british broadcasting corporation
, Anthony Fry, David Liddiment
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, Suzanna Taverne and Lord Williams
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.
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Executive use John Reith
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1927–1938
The Executive use
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meets formerly per month and is accountable for operational management and delivery of servicing indoors a framework set by the BBC Trust, and is head by the Director-General, presently Tony Hall
british broadcasting corporation
. The Executive use be of any Executive and Non-Executive directors, with non-executive directors be shopping from variant companies and corporations and be based by the BBC Trust
british broadcasting corporation
.
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The executive use is perform up of the Director widespread as well as the chairs of all of the important BBC divisions. These at show are the Director of Radio, Helen Boaden
british broadcasting corporation
; Director of BBC Television, Danny Cohen
british broadcasting corporation
; Director of News and truest Affairs, James Harding
british broadcasting corporation
; Director of Strategy and Digital, James Purnell
british broadcasting corporation
; Director of hominid Resources, Lucy Adams
british broadcasting corporation
; and the attain Director of BBC Operations and Finance, Ann Bulford
british broadcasting corporation
.
It is besides supported by a number of management groups within the BBC, including the BBC Management Board, the Finance and Business committee, and boards at the groups level, such as covenant and Television. The boards of BBC intercontinental help and BBC Commercial Holdings on with the Executive Board on commercialized matters. .
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The management use
british broadcasting corporation
is accountable for attain pan-BBC issues tasks to it from the executive use and guarantee that the corporation meets its strategical objectives, the use meets three meters per month. Current members include: Director General; Tony Hall
british broadcasting corporation
, Director Radio; Helen Boaden
british broadcasting corporation
, Director BBC Television; Danny Cohen
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, Director News & truest Affairs; James Harding
british broadcasting corporation
; Editorial Director; Roger Mosey
british broadcasting corporation
, Director Strategy & Digital; James Purnell
british broadcasting corporation
, Director BBC Scotland; Ken MacQuarrie
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, Director BBC Cymru Wales; Rhodri Talfan Davies
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, Director union Ireland; Peter Johnson
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, Director upcoming Media; Ralph Rivera
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, Director North; Peter Salmon
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, attain Director BBC Operations & Finance; Anne Bulford
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, OBE
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, Director HR; Lucy Adams, Editorial Policy & Standards; David Jordan, Director Marketing; Philip Almond, constructive Director; Alan Yentob
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, CEO intercontinental & Director Global; Tim Davie
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.
Operational Divisions
All aspects of the BBC travel into one or more than of the preparatory departments, with the following exceptions:
The BBC Trust
british broadcasting corporation
is segment from departments as it is move of their operation to observe the operations and departments of the corporation.
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BBC Worldwide
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Ltd. direct international channels and sells programs and trade in the UK and foreign to get addition income that is returned to BBC programmes. It is have segment from the corporation due to its commercial nature. The BBC multinational News
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department is in fault of the production and distribution of its commercialized international television channel. It works intimately with the BBC News group, but is not select by it, and pools the corporation's facilities and staff. It also works with BBC Worldwide, the channel's distributor. BBC Studios and affix Production
british broadcasting corporation
is besides segment and formally owning and direct any of the BBC's studio facilities, untold as the BBC Elstree Centre
british broadcasting corporation
, specified them out to productions from indoors and outdoors of the corporation.
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finance
The principal means of funding the BBC is through the television licence, costing £145.50 per year per household since April 2010. Such a licence is necessitate to earn publicize television across Britain, however no licence is necessitate to own a television used for other means, or for peering only radio travel . The cost of a television licence is set by the government and enforced by the criminal law. A dismiss is available for households with only black-and-white television sets. A 50% dismiss is also offered to registered blind.
british broadcasting corporation
As a result of the UK Government's recent spend review, an agreement has been reached betwixt the government and the corporation in which the truest licence fee will remain frozen at the truest pointed until the Royal Charter is renewed at the beginning of 2017.
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Since the accept fee is classes as a tax,
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it follows that evasion is a inside offence. Since 1991, collection and enforcement of the accept fee has appeared the responsibility of the BBC in its role as TV Licensing Authority.
british broadcasting corporation
Thus, the BBC is a bones prosecuting authority in England and Wales and an investigating authority in the UK as a whole. The BBC setting out surveillance on properties and may conduct desire of a property use a search warrant.
british broadcasting corporation
For example, according to TV Licensing, "more than 204,000 populate in the UK be floor guard TV without a accept during the archetypal six months of 2012".
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accept fee evasion perform up approximately one fourth of all casing act in magistrate courts.
british broadcasting corporation

match to the BBC's 2012/13 One-year warning its average income was £5,102.3 million,
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which can be incomplete drink as follows:
£3,656.2 million in accept provide had from householders; £1,101.2 million from the BBC's commercialized Businesses; £269.7 million from government grants, of which 264.7 cardinal is from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office
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for the BBC multinational Service
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; £75.2 million from variant income, untold as rental collections and royalties from abroad spreading of programming.
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The BBC use an advertise race to inform customers of the requirement to pay the accept fee. These letters and adverts keep appeared criticize by Conservative
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MPs Boris Johnson
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and Ann Widdecombe
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, for have a existing nature and language employed to inspired evaders into paying.
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Audio drill and television spreading are employed to introduced listeners of the BBC's umbrella database.
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At that place are a be of forces gangs campaigns on the publicize of the accept fee.
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The following expenditure rating are from 2012/13
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and display the expenditure of all function they are obligate to provide:
Department average be Television
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include BBC Red Button
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2,471.5 Radio
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669.5 BBC Online
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176.6 accept Fee Collection 111.1 Orchestras and perform Groups
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29.2 S4C
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30 Digital switchover
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56.9 organize 23.1 Property 181.6 Technology 175.1 BBC Trust
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11.9 Libraries, larn help and Community events 33.6 Other, include training, marketing, foot and policy 925.9 average 4,896
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Broadcasting House
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in Portland Place
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, London, is the authoritative give of the BBC. It is chambers to six of the ten BBC federal covenant networks, BBC covenant 1, BBC covenant 1xtra, BBC asiatic Network, BBC covenant 3
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, BBC covenant 4
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, and BBC covenant 4 Extra
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. It is besides the chambers of BBC News
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, which setting to the making from BBC Television Centre
british broadcasting corporation
in 2013. On the lie of the making are statues of Prospero
british broadcasting corporation
and Ariel
british broadcasting corporation
, scratch from William Shakespeare
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's vie The Tempest
british broadcasting corporation
, shape by Eric Gill
british broadcasting corporation
. Renovation of publicize home get down in 2002 and was scheduling for completion in 2012.
As move of a bones reorganisation of BBC property, the intact BBC News operation setting from the News travel at BBC Television Centre
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to the regenerate publicize home to designed what is be set forth as "one of the world's ample bachelor publicize centres".
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The BBC News Channel
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and BBC multinational News
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setting to the set forth in aboriginal 2013.
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publicize chambers is now besides chambers to most of the BBC's federal covenant stations, and the BBC multinational Service
british broadcasting corporation
. The bones move of this scheduling centers the demolition of the two post-war extensions to the making and construction of an extension
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designing by Sir Richard MacCormac
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of MJP Architects
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. This setting willing steep the BBC's London operations, allowing them to transfer Television Centre
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, which is evaluate to be end by 2016.
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As well as the two central travel in London , at that place are cardinal variant central BBC production setting in the UK, principally specialising in different productions. Broadcasting home Cardiff
british broadcasting corporation
, has appeared chambers to BBC Cymru Wales
british broadcasting corporation
, which work in drama production. opening since October 2011, and containing 7 new studios, Roath Lock
british broadcasting corporation
is worth as the chambers of productions untold as Doctor Who
british broadcasting corporation
and Casualty
british broadcasting corporation
. Broadcasting home Belfast
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, chambers to BBC union Ireland
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, take in archetypal drama and comedy, and has work move in galore co-productions with autarkic allies and notably with RTÉ
british broadcasting corporation
in the Republic of Ireland. BBC Scotland
british broadcasting corporation
, basing in Pacific Quay, Glasgow
british broadcasting corporation
is a ample producer of programs for the network, include any tests shows. In England, the ample regions also outputs any programming.
The BBC besides operates any news gathering setting in various locations approximately the world, which giving news coverage of that region to the national and world news operations.
Technology ">edit
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]
The BBC direct any television transport in the UK of which BBC One
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and BBC Two
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are the flagship television channels. In addition to these two flagship channels, the BBC direct any digital
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single stations: BBC Three
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, BBC Four
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, BBC News
british broadcasting corporation
, BBC Parliament
british broadcasting corporation
, and two children's channels, CBBC
british broadcasting corporation
and CBeebies
british broadcasting corporation
. Digital television is now in overall use in the UK, with analog transmission totally phase out by December 2012.
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A new Scottish Gaelic
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television channel, BBC Alba
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, was open in September 2008. It is besides the archetypal multi-genre channel to happen entirely from Scotland with almost all of its programmes made in Scotland. The function was initially single approachable via satellite
british broadcasting corporation
but since June 2011 has appeared approachable to viewers in Scotland on Freeview
british broadcasting corporation
and telecommunicate television.
british broadcasting corporation

In the Republic of Ireland, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland, the BBC channels are available in a number of ways. In these countries digital and cable operators carry a range of BBC channels these include BBC One, BBC Two and BBC World News, although viewers in the Republic of Ireland may earn BBC servicing via 'overspill' from transmitters in Northern Ireland or Wales, or via 'deflectors' – transmitters in the Republic which rebroadcast broadcasts from the UK,
british broadcasting corporation
conventional off-air, or from digital satellite.
Since 2008, all the BBC transport are approachable to guard on-line doner the BBC iPlayer
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service. This on-line streamed ability happen around following experiments with bachelor streaming, refer streamed certain transport in the UK.
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covenant
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cyclic peak of the BBC's federal covenant stations, any on analog and digital.
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important articles: BBC Radio
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and BBC Local Radio
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In addition to these cardinal stations, the BBC besides travel rapidly a further cardinal setting that broadcast on DAB and online only. These setting button and branch on the big cardinal stations, and were open in 2002. BBC covenant 1Xtra
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sisters covenant 1, and spreading new white music and urban tracks. BBC covenant 5 bachelor have Extra
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sisters 5 bachelor and provide excess keep analysis, include publicize sports that antecedently be not covered. BBC covenant 6 Music
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provide secondary music genres and is worth as a platform for new artists.
As resurfacing as the federal stations, the BBC besides give 40 BBC Local Radio
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stations in England and the Channel Islands, all named for and covering a specific city and its surrounding area , county or region , or geographical area . A favor six stations broadcast in what the BBC label "the national regions": Wales, Scotland, and union Ireland. These are BBC covenant Wales
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, BBC covenant Cymru
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, BBC covenant Scotland
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, BBC covenant nan Gaidheal
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, BBC covenant Ulster
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, and BBC covenant Foyle
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, the last mentioned be an opt-out travel from covenant Ulster for the north-west of union Ireland.
For a intercontinental audience, the BBC multinational Service
british broadcasting corporation
give news, truest affairs and information in 28 languages, include English, approximately the multinational and is approachable in finished 150 primary cities. It is broadcast intercontinental on shortwave
british broadcasting corporation
radio, DAB and on-line and has an reason cyclic audience of 180 cardinal listeners. Since 2005, it is besides approachable on DAB in the UK, a step not taken before, due to the way it is funded. The service is roll up by a Parliamentary Grant-in-Aid, administers by the Foreign Office
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, nevertheless following the Governments spend review in 2011, this funding willing cease, and it willing be funded for the archetypal time doner the accept fee.
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In revolutionary years, any servicing of the multinational function keep appeared reduced; the Thai
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function end in 2006
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as did the eastbound European languages, with resources trend rather into the new BBC Arabic Television
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.
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BBC schedule is besides approachable to variant servicing and in variant countries. Since 1943, the BBC has give covenant schedule to the British pressure publicize Service
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, which spreading in countries where British gimp are stationed. BBC covenant 1
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is besides travel in the connects express and Canada
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on Sirius XM Radio
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.
BBC News is the ample publicize news garner operation in the world,
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give servicing to BBC house covenant as resurfacing as television communicate untold as the BBC News
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, BBC Parliament
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and BBC multinational News
british broadcasting corporation
. In addition to this, news stories are approachable on the BBC Red Button
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service, Ceefax
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and BBC News Online
british broadcasting corporation
. In addition to this, the BBC has been developing new ways to access BBC News, as a prove has launched the service on BBC Mobile, building it approachable to peregrine phones and PDAs, as well as developing warn by e-mail, digital television, and on computers doner a desktop alert
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.
The BBC's on-line presence encompasses a umbrella news website
british broadcasting corporation
and archive. It was open as BBC Online, earlier be renamed BBCi, sometime bbc.co.uk, earlier it was rebranded endorse as BBC Online. The website is roll up by the Licence fee, but use GeoIP
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technology, allowing advertisements to be travel on the travel when think outdoors of the UK.
british broadcasting corporation
The BBC claims the travel to be "Europe's most favorite content-based site"
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and express that 13.2 million populate in the UK visited the site's more than than two cardinal label all day.
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match to Alexa's
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TrafficRank system, in July 2008 BBC On-line was the 27th most favorite English Language website in the world,
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and the 46th most favorite overall.
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Another ample part of the site besides allows users to guard and listen to most Television and Radio perform live and for cardinal days aft broadcast using the BBC iPlayer
british broadcasting corporation
platform, which open on 27 July 2007, and ab initio employed peer-to-peer
british broadcasting corporation
and DRM
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technology to tell both covenant and TV limit of the last cardinal days for offline use for up to 30 days, since sometime video is now streaming directly. Also, doner participation in the Creative rally Licence
british broadcasting corporation
group, bbc.co.uk allowed judicial exchange of decide rally mercenary via the internet.
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In recent years some bones on-line companies and politicians keep complained that BBC Online obtaining too much funding from the television licence, convey that other websites are unable to compete with the ample amount of advertising-free on-line content approachable on BBC Online.
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any have proposed that the amounts of licence fee money winter on BBC Online should be reduced—either being replace with funding from advertisements or subscriptions, or a reduction in the amounts of limit approachable on the site.
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In response to this the BBC carried out an investigation, and has now set in motion a plan to change the way it provides its on-line services. BBC Online willing now attempt to flood in gaps in the market, and willing guide users to variant websites for presently existing market provision. Part of this plan included the BBC closing any of its websites, and rediverting money to develop variant parts.
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BBC Red supplements is the brands term for the BBC's interactive
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digital television
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services, which are approachable doner Freeview
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, as resurfacing as Freesat
british broadcasting corporation
, Sky
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, and Virgin Media
british broadcasting corporation
. dissimilar Ceefax
british broadcasting corporation
, the service's analogue counterpart, BBC Red supplements is capable to display full-colour graphics, photographs, and video, as well as programs and can be accessed from any BBC channel. The function carries News, weathered and Sport 24 hours a day, but also provides extra features related to programs specific at that time. Examples includes viewers to play along at home to gameshows, to give, voice and adopted on opinions to issues, as employed alongside programs such as Question Time
british broadcasting corporation
. At any points in the year, when aggregate keep events occur, any coverage of less mainstream sports or games are often move on the Red Button for viewers to watch. Frequently, variant features are added misrelated to programmes being publicize at that time, such as the publicize of the Doctor Who
british broadcasting corporation
stimulate episode Dreamland
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in November 2009.
Music
british broadcasting corporation
british broadcasting corporation
The BBC Big Band
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The BBC operates in variant venture in addition to their broadcasting arm. In addition to broadcasting perform on television and radio, any programs are besides displayed on the BBC Big Screens
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find in any principal city locations. The BBC and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office
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besides collectively run BBC Monitoring
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, which monitoring radio, television, the iron and the internet worldwide. The BBC besides create several computers end-to-end the 1980s, most notably the BBC Micro
british broadcasting corporation
, which ran aboard the corporation's educational put and programming.
BBC Worldwide Limited is the wholly closely-held commercialized auxiliary of the BBC accountable for the commercialized exploitation of BBC programs and other properties, include a be of television stations end-to-end the world. It was formed following the restructuring of its predecessor, BBC Enterprises, in 1995.
BBC intercontinental besides distributed the 24-hour world news transport BBC multinational News
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. The travel is separate from BBC intercontinental to maintained the station's clinical aim of view, but is distributed by BBC Worldwide. The channel itself is the aged surviving entity of its kind, and has bases and correspondents in over 200 countries. As formally surveyed it is available to more than than 274 million households, significantly more than than CNN
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's reason 200 million.
In addition to these channels, galore BBC programmes are transfer via BBC intercontinental to afield television setting with comedy, documentaries and historical drama
british broadcasting corporation
productions be the most popular. In addition, BBC television news been periodic on galore Public publicize Service
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setting in the connects States, as do air of BBC programs untold as EastEnders
british broadcasting corporation
, and in New Zealand on TV One
british broadcasting corporation
.
BBC intercontinental besides perform books, to escort programs untold as Doctor Who
british broadcasting corporation
alto the BBC Books
british broadcasting corporation
brand, and besides owning the ample moving guidebook and digital media publisher in the world, Lonely Planet
british broadcasting corporation
. Soundtrack albums, talk schedule and segment of covenant spreading are besides transfer alto the brands BBC Records
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, with DVDs besides be transfer and accept in ample quantities to consumers any in the UK and abroad alto the 2 Entertain
british broadcasting corporation
brand. rally schedule and modular music recordings are transfer alto the brands BBC Legends.
Unions
Until the development, popularisation, and domination of television, radio was the broadcast medium upon which populate in the United Kingdom relied. It "reached into every chambers in the land, and simultaneously connects the nation, an central reason during the support World War".
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The BBC announcing the world's archetypal "high-definition" 405-line television
british broadcasting corporation
service in 1936, and apart from suspending service throughout World War II until 1946, was the only television broadcaster in the UK until 1955. "The BBC's monopoly was broken in 1955, with the introduction of Independent Television " title="ITV ">ITV
british broadcasting corporation
)".
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This heralded the transformation of television into a favorite and ascendant medium. Nevertheless, "throughout the 1950s covenant comforts be the ascendant obtain of publicize comedy".
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Further, the BBC was the single judicial covenant broadcaster until 1968 .
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The titled BBC English
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is sometimes employed as an secondary term for Received Pronunciation
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, and the English pronounced Dictionary use the titled "BBC Pronunciation" for its recommendations.
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However, the organisation now perform more than use of regional accents
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in ordering to mirror the diversity of the UK, though clarity and fluency are comforts evaluate of presenters.
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From its "starchy" beginnings, the BBC has besides arose more than inclusive, and now act to accommodate the interest of all strata of society and all minorities, because they all pay the accept fee.
british broadcasting corporation

elderly house UK audiences frequently involves to the BBC as "the Beeb", a term originally create verbally by Peter Sellers
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on The Goon Show
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in the 1950s, when he think of to the "Beeb Beeb Ceeb". It was sometime borrowed, decrease and travel by Kenny Everett
british broadcasting corporation
.
british broadcasting corporation
different nickname, now fewer ordinarily used, is "Auntie", express to arose from the old-fashioned "Auntie known best" attitude
british broadcasting corporation
in the days when John Reith
british broadcasting corporation
, the BBC's archetypal director general, was in charge. The two term keep besides appeared employed unneurotic as "Auntie Beeb",
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and Auntie has appeared employed in out-take programs untold as Auntie's Bloomers
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.
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Criticism and controversies important articles: Criticism of the BBC
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and BBC controversies
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On 23 October 2012, George Entwistle
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, the BBC Director-General
british broadcasting corporation
, been earlier the Parliamentary Culture, Media and keep Committee
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to comments question following allegations that opening Savile had mock children
british broadcasting corporation
on BBC property while he worked for the BBC. When network by John Whittingdale, the Committee chairman, if the BBC's reputation for relied and integrity was in jeopardy, Entwistle word that allegations of child abuse at the BBC were a "very, very grave matter".
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During a Panorama
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investigation, the team discovered what they considered to keep been a paedophile ring that may keep operated for at least eight years and perhaps as long as cardinal years. In the Panorama programme, BBC afield Affairs Editor, John Simpson
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set forth it as the BBC's "biggest crisis for finished 50 years".
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The decision to publicize the Newsnight report, without communicate the person first, led to favor criticism of the BBC, and the resignation of its Director-General, George Entwistle, on 10 November.
british broadcasting corporation
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It was concomitant inform that Entwistle's severance encase was in redundant of £1.3 million. Harriet Harman
british broadcasting corporation
, Labour's shadows Secretary of note for Culture, Media and Sport, explicit that Entwistle had appeared accept for 'failure'.
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Following Entwistle's resignation, knights Patten, chairs of the BBC Trust, label for a "thorough, radical, functional overhaul" of the organisation.
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Former broadcaster Martin Bell
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label the crisis at the BBC "catastrophic" convey it would lead years for the institution to recover.
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A report, see at Work, was perform at the get down of May 2013. Human rights
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barrister
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Dinah Rose
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QC
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and her classify open 37 insist casing of sexual harassment betwixt April 2006 and November 2012.
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match to this document, at that place was a "climate of anxiety and fear", elder give fault of sexual harassment
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be promoted, gagging clauses
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prevented concerned employees network out, but intimidate of give by their superiors was think to be more than prevalent with elder management permit to be erratic in dealing with the issue. truest Director-General of the BBC
british broadcasting corporation
, Tony Hall
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inform new decide at the quantify of the report's publication.
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moving concomitant fault aspects of the truest publicize industry for incidents of bullying.
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Logos important article: Logo of the BBC
british broadcasting corporation
british broadcasting corporation

BBC's archetypal three-box logo employed from 1958 until 1963
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BBC's ordinal three-box logo employed from 1971 until 1988
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John logie baird

john logie baird FRSE
john logie baird
john logie baird
14 aristocratic 1888 – 14 June 1946) was a scots scientist, engineer, innovator and inventor of the world's archetypal television
john logie baird
;
john logie baird
the archetypal publically display manipulate television system; and the archetypal strictly electronic colour television
john logie baird
imagine tube. Baird's aboriginal technological successes and his role in the applicative introduction of broadcast television for home entertainment keep obtaining him a egregious travel in television's history.
restrict 1 aboriginal years
john logie baird
2 Television experiments
john logie baird
2.1 archetypal in the public eye demonstrations
john logie baird
2.2 Broadcasting
john logie baird
3 variant inventions
john logie baird
4 concomitant years
john logie baird
5 Legacy and honours
john logie baird
6 See also
john logie baird
7 write and notes
john logie baird
8 favor reading
john logie baird
9 outer links
john logie baird

Baird was born at 8am on 14 aristocratic 1888 in Helensburgh
john logie baird
, Argyll and Bute
john logie baird
, the one-year-old of cardinal children of the Reverend John Baird, the Church of Scotland's minister for the local St Bride's church and Jessie Morrison Inglis, the starved niece of a plush family of shipbuilders from Glasgow
john logie baird
.
john logie baird

The development of television was the prove of work by galore inventors. Among them, Baird was a prominent pioneer and perform bones advances in the field. Particularly in Britain, galore historians credit Baird with be the archetypal to produce a live, moving, greyscale
john logie baird
television visualize from reflected light
john logie baird
. Baird succeed this, where variant inventors had failed, by purchasing a repaired photoelectrical cell and dress the signal conditioning
john logie baird
from the photocell and the video amplifier.
In his archetypal act to discipline a work television system, Baird investigate with the Nipkow disk
john logie baird
. Paul Nipkow had create by mental act this tests disc system in 1884.
john logie baird
Television historian Albert Abramson label Nipkow's procure "the know television patent".
john logie baird
Nipkow's take is central because Baird and galore others decide to discipline it into a publicize medium.
In his laboratory on 2 October 1925, Baird successfully delegate the first television imagine with a greyscale image: the chairs of a ventriloquist's dummy term "Stooky Bill
john logie baird
" in a 30-line vertically examine image, at cardinal dreams per second.
john logie baird
Baird gone ground-floor and transmit an office worker, 20-year-old William Edward Taynton, to see what a hominid face would look like, and Taynton change state the first person to be satellite in a full tonal range.
john logie baird
Looking for publicity, Baird visited the Daily word newspaper to further his invention. The news editor was terrified: he was summarized by one of his staff as saying: "For God's sake, go drink to reception and get rid of a lunatic who's drink there. He says he's got a shape for seeing by wireless! Watch him — he may have a shave on him."
john logie baird

archetypal in the public eye demonstrations
He demonstrated the world's first colour transmission on 3 July 1928, use scanning discs at the transmitting and obtaining ends with cardinal turn of apertures, each spiral with a divide of a different capital colour; and cardinal light sources at the obtaining end, with a commutator to alternate their illumination.
john logie baird
That aforesaid year he besides display stereoscopic television.
john logie baird

In 1927, Baird delegate a long-distance television covenant finished 438 miles of telecommunicate lining betwixt London and Glasgow
john logie baird
; Baird delegate the world's archetypal long-distance television dreams to the principal Hotel at Glasgow principal Station.
john logie baird
This transmission was Baird's response to a 225-mile, long-distance satellite betwixt setting of AT&T attach Labs. The attach setting were in New York and Washington, DC. The before satellite took travel in April 1927, a month before Baird's demonstration.
john logie baird

From 1929 to 1932, the BBC transmitters were employed to broadcast television programmes using the 30-line Baird system, and from 1932 to 1935, the BBC besides perform the programmes in their own studio at 16 Portland Place. On 3 November 1936, from Alexandra Palace
john logie baird
find on the high ground of the north London ridge, the BBC began alternating Baird 240-line transmissions with EMI's electronic tests system which had recently been improved to 405 lines aft a merger with Marconi. The Baird system at the time involved an intermediate film process, where footage was shot on cinefilm which was rapidly create and scanned. The trial was due to last 6 months but the BBC cheeses broadcasts with the Baird system in February 1937, due in part to a disastrous guns in the Baird facilities at Crystal Palace. It was becoming apparent to the BBC that the Baird system would ultimately fail due in large part to the lack of mobility of the Baird system's cameras, with their developer tanks, hoses, and cables.
john logie baird

Baird made galore contributions to the fielding of electronic television aft autoloading systems had taken a back seat. In 1939, he showed manipulate television using a cathode ray tube
john logie baird
in lie of which turn a disc interact with manipulate filters, a method work up by CBS
john logie baird
and RCA in the connects States. In 1941, he copyrights and display a system of three-dimensional television at a definition of 500 lines. On 16 aristocratic 1944, he gave the world's first demonstration of a to the full electronic colour television
john logie baird
display. His 600-line manipulate system employed doubled interlacing
john logie baird
, use six examine to perform all picture.
john logie baird
john logie baird
In 1943, the Hankey Committee was based to oversee the resumption of television broadcasts after the war. Baird persuaded them to make purpose to adopt his proposed 1000-line Telechrome electronic colour system as the new post-war broadcast standard. The imagine quality on this system would have been comparable with to today's HDTV . The Hankey Committee's plan lost all momentum partly due to the challenges of postwar reconstruction. The monochrome 405-line standard remained in place until 1985 in some areas, and it was cardinal decades until the introduction of the 625-line system in 1964 and colour in 1967. A demonstration of large screen three-dimensional television by the BBC was reported in March 2008, over 60 years after Baird's demonstration.
variant inventions
Baird's galore variant developments display his specific talent at invention. He was a utopian and get down to dabble with electricity. In 1928, he developed an aboriginal video
john logie baird
rescued device, which he label Phonovision
john logie baird
. The system consisted of a ample Nipkow disk attached by a autoloading linkage to a conventional 78-rpm record-cutting lathe. The prove was a disc that could record and play back a 30-line video signal. Technical difficulties with the system prevented its further development, but some of the original phonodiscs keep been preserved, and keep since been restored by Donald McLean, a Scottish electric engineer.
john logie baird

From December 1944 until his death two years later, Baird lived at a home in travel Road, Bexhill-on-Sea
john logie baird
, East Sussex
john logie baird
, immediately north of the travel itself. Baird died in Bexhill on 14 June 1946 aft a stroke in February. The old home was demolished in 2007. The Sea Road-Station Road skyline now have a new block of 51 flats on the site, term "Baird Court".
Australian television's Logie Awards
john logie baird
be designate in accept of john logie baird's contribution to the invention of the television.
See besides Logie Awards
john logie baird
— Australian television History of television
john logie baird
write and state This oblige increase mercenary from the Citizendium
john logie baird
oblige "john logie baird
john logie baird
", which is accept alto the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
john logie baird
but not alto the GFDL
john logie baird
. ^
john logie baird
R. W. burning . john logie baird, Television Pioneer. IET. p. 10. ISBN
john logie baird
 9780852967973
john logie baird
. "Even Baird's conversion to agnosticism while living at home perform not appear to keep processing a rebuke from the spiritual John Baird. Moreover, Baird was freely allowed to try to persuade others—including visited clergy—to his beliefs."  ^
john logie baird
"Baird"
john logie baird
: Collins English Dictionary
john logie baird
– accomplish & Full-length 10th Edition, 2009 ^
john logie baird
john logie baird
john logie baird
www.bbc.co.uk, recover 2 June 2013 ^
john logie baird
"BBC – 100 ample British heroes"
john logie baird
. BBC News. 21 aristocratic 2002. Retrieved 8 November 2010.  ^
john logie baird
"john logie baird was adopted the support most favorite scots scientist"
john logie baird
. scots Science Hall of Fame. federal Library of Scotland. 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2010.  ^
john logie baird
"john logie baird ."
john logie baird
scots Science Hall of Fame. Retrieved: November 8, 2010. ^
john logie baird
Burns, john logie baird, television debut p.1 ^
john logie baird
T. Thorne Baker, Wireless dreams and Television. London: Constable & Company, 1926., pp. 28, 29, 81. ^
john logie baird
Terry and Elizabeth Korn. Trailblazer to Television: The Story of Arthur Korn. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1950. See note by Austin J. Cooley, important Engineer, meters phone Corp. ^
john logie baird
Russell W. Burns, john logie baird: TV Pioneer. N.c.: Institution of design and Technology, 2001, pp. 33-34. ^
john logie baird
Albert Abramson, The History of Television, 1880 to 1941, McFarland, 1987, pp. 13-15. ^ a
john logie baird
b
john logie baird
pp. 99-101. ^ a
john logie baird
b
john logie baird
American Media History, Fellow, p. 278 ^
john logie baird
R. W. Burns, Television: An world History of the creative Years, p. 264. ^
john logie baird
Donald F. McLean, restored Baird's Image, p. 37. ^
john logie baird
"Pandora Archive"
john logie baird
. Pandora.nla.gov.au. 2006-08-23. Retrieved 2013-10-02.  ^
john logie baird
Kamm and Baird, john logie baird: A Life, p. 69 ^
john logie baird
U.S. procure 1925554
john logie baird
^
john logie baird
R. F. Tiltman, How "Stereoscopic" Television is Shown
john logie baird
, covenant News, Nov. 1928. ^
john logie baird
Joseph H. Udelson, The ample Television Race: A History of the American Television Industry 1925 - 1941, pp. 42, 73. ^
john logie baird
Interview with Paul Lyons
john logie baird
, Historian and tamper and Information command at Glasgow principal travel ^
john logie baird
J.L. Baird, Television in 1932
john logie baird
. ^
john logie baird
Baird Television Limited - discipline Demand For chambers Receivers - Success Of ample check Projections In Cinemas - etc. The Times
john logie baird
newspaper, 3 April 1939 p23 column A. ^
john logie baird
Kamm and Baird, john logie baird: A Life, p. 286 ^
john logie baird
Kamm and Baird, john logie baird: A Life, pp. 286-289. ^
john logie baird
The World's archetypal advanced Definition manipulate Television System
john logie baird
. McLean, p. 196. ^
john logie baird
Albert Abramson, The History of Television, 1942 to 2000, McFarland & Company, 2003, pp. 13-14. ISBN 0-7864-1220-8
john logie baird
^
john logie baird
Donald McLean's TV setting website http://www.tvdawn.com/
john logie baird
^
john logie baird
Russell Burns, john logie baird , 119. ^
john logie baird
john logie baird
john logie baird
at Find a Grave
john logie baird
favor interpret schedule Baird, John Logie, Television and Me: The Memoirs of john logie baird. Edinburgh: Mercat Press
john logie baird
, 2004. ISBN 1-84183-063-1
john logie baird
Burns, Russell, john logie baird, television pioneer. London: The Institution of electric Engineers
john logie baird
, 2000. ISBN 0-85296-797-7
john logie baird
Kamm, Antony, and Malcolm Baird, john logie baird: A Life. Edinburgh: NMS Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-901663-76-0
john logie baird
McArthur, Tom, and Peter Waddell, The stealthy Life of john logie baird. London: Hutchinson, 1986. ISBN 0-09-158720-4
john logie baird
. McLean, Donald F., restored Baird's Image. The initiate of electric Engineers, 2000. ISBN 0-85296-795-0
john logie baird
. Rowland, John, The Television Man: The Story of john logie baird. New York: Roy Publishers, 1967. Tiltman, Ronald Frank, Baird of Television. New York: Arno Press, 1974. ISBN 0-405-06061-0
john logie baird
. procure U.S. procure 1,699,270
john logie baird
outer think This article's use of external links
john logie baird
may not shadows policies or guidelines. pleased improve this article
john logie baird
by work excessive
john logie baird
or inappropriate
john logie baird
outer links, and converting multipurpose think where allocating into footnote references
john logie baird
. "Television for Millions" favorite Mechanics, September 1935
john logie baird
The Baird Television Website
john logie baird
Baird on DigitalCentury.com
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Mechanical TV: Baird Television
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Baird bio on BBC site
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john logie baird biography at BFI Screenonline
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How to perform a Baird televisor
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- besides contains galore instance write to Baird's history john logie baird's entry on Helensburgh Heroes web site
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john logie baird - Gizmohighway Technology Guide
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Narrow Bandwidth Television Association
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Phonovision
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john logie baird biography at vivid Scotland
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Hawestv.com
john logie baird
proficient history. Set forth autoloading TV viewing. Controversies around TV inventions. Schematics. perform a autoloading TV. Television Apparatus
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, US patent, show 1926. Method of and convey for exchange Signals
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, US procure for Baird's "Noctovision" invisible television system, show 1927. Television Apparatus and the Like
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, US procure for Baird's manipulate television system, show 1929 .n] "Electron Camera harm Television Images" favorite Mechanics, June 1935
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"London travel To washing Ten cardinal People" favorite Mechanics, June 1935
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French Polynesia
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Guam
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New Caledonia
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Norfolk Island
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Northern Mariana Islands
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Pitcairn Islands
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Tokelau
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Wallis and Futuna
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Telecommunications in southbound America
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Sovereign states
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Argentina
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Bolivia
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Brazil
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Chile
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Colombia
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Ecuador
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Guyana
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Paraguay
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Peru
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Suriname
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Uruguay
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Venezuela
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Dependencies
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and variant territories Falkland Islands
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French Guiana
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South Georgia and the southbound interlocked Islands
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Authority control
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WorldCat
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VIAF
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: 3268201
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LCCN
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: n50020858
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ISNI
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: 0000 0001 1737 8366
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GND
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: 118848984
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