Camera

A camera is an optical instrument that records images
camera
that can be have directly, delegate to different location, or both. These visualize may be comforts photographs
camera
or speed visualize untold as videos
camera
or movies
camera
. The titled camera happen from the vent camera obscura
camera
, an aboriginal mechanism for covenant images. The contemporary camera create by mental act from the camera obscura.
structural description
camera
camera
basal elements of a contemporary comforts camera.
A film
camera
or video camera
camera
direct likewise to a comforts camera, minds it rescue a series of inert visualize in abstain succession, ordinarily at a rate
camera
of 24 enclose per second. When the visualize are have and show in order, the illusion of contact of achieved.
camera

History important article: History of the camera
camera
camera
camera
How a camera obscura works: Light from a actual except enters a dark room or box through a atomic hole. An inverted image of the except is created on the shielded different the atomic hole. A atomic hit ensue in a sharper, but dimmer, image.
camera

The Italian scientist Giambattista della Porta
camera
set forth the camera obscura in elaborate in his 1558 take Magia Naturalis
camera
, and specifically promising that an artist could covenant a camera obscura's visualize onto paper, and analyze the outlines.
camera
The camera obscura was favorite as an aid for travel and perform from the 1600s to the 1800s.
camera
movable set-ups be create by mental act in the 17th century. For example, Kepler had perform a movable tent, and give the camera obscura with a lens by 1620.
camera
camera
This set-up be favorite up to the aboriginal 1800s.
camera
The scientist Robert Hooke presented a paper in 1694 to the Royal Society, in which he set forth a movable camera obscura. It was a cone-shaped box which fit onto the chairs and increase of its user.
camera
A hand-held device with a mirrored reflexive mechanism was archetypal declare by Johann Zahn
camera
in 1685, a engineered that would concomitant be use in photographic cameras.
camera

The archetypal abiding photograph
camera
of a camera visualize was perform in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
camera
use a skates woody box camera perform by Charles and Vincent Chevalier in Paris.
camera
Niépce had appeared experimenting with ways to fix the images of a camera obscura since 1816. The rescue Niépce succeeded in creating shows the think from his window. It was perform use an 8-hour exposure on pewter coated with bitumen.
camera
Niépce label his affect "heliography".
camera
Niépce equal with the inventor Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre
camera
, and the happen entering into a partnership to change the heliographic process. Niépce had experimented further with variant chemicals, to change contrast in his heliographs. Daguerre contributed an shifting camera obscura design, but the partnership ended when Niépce died in 1833.
camera
Daguerre succeed in developing a high-contrast and highly antithetic visualize by incur on a silver coated with chrome iodide, and incur this silver again to mercury vapor.
camera
By 1837, he was able to fix the images with a communal season solution. He label this affect Daguerreotypie, and act unsuccessfully for a join years to mining it. Eventually, with encouraging of the scientist and politician François Arago
camera
, the cut government dress Daguerre's affect for in the public eye release. In exchange, allocate be give to Daguerre and Niépce's son, Isidore.
camera

camera
camera
The Giroux daguerreotype
camera
camera, the archetypal to be commercially produced, have a double-box engineered with a landscape-type lens.
camera

Similar cameras be employed for incur the silver-surfaced plate plates, commercially announcing in 1839, which be the first applicative photographic medium. The collodion wet silver process
camera
that gradually replace the daguerreotype during the 1850s required photographers to coat and sensitised tenuous glass or iron plates shortly before use and expose them in the camera while still wet. aboriginal wet silver cameras were dead simple and smallest different from Daguerreotype cameras, but more sophisticated designs eventually appeared. The Dubroni of 1864 allowed the sensitizing and developing
camera
of the coat to be travel out within the camera itself instead than in a segment darkroom
camera
. variant cameras be fitted with aggregate lenses for photographing several atomic portraits on a only larger plate, multipurpose when making cartes de visite
camera
. It was during the wet silver era that the use of bellows
camera
for think change state widespread, building the ample and fewer elementary dress populate box engineered obsolete.
The electronic video camera tube
camera
was create by mental act in the 1920s, be a lining of development that finally prove in digital cameras
camera
, which mostly succeed rescue cameras approximately the be of the 21st century.
Mechanics visualize bags
camera
camera
19th century studio camera, with shout for think
cameras that bags galore visualize in evaluate are characterized as movie cameras
camera
or as ciné cameras in Europe
camera
; those designing for only visualize are still cameras
camera
.
A video camera
camera
is a category of movie camera that represent visualize electronically .
Lens important articles: camera lens
camera
and Photographic lens design
camera
camera
camera
Leica M9
camera
with a Summicron-M 28/2 ASPH Lens
camera lenses are perform in a widest crops of focal lengths. They crops from intense widest angle, wide angle
camera
, standard, moderate telephoto and telephoto
camera
. all lens is pulses meet a reliable write of photography. The intense widest travel may be desire for architecture
camera
because it has the capacity to bags a widest think of a building. The average lens, because it frequently has a widest aperture, is frequently employed for street and documentary photography
camera
. The telephoto lens is multipurpose for have and wildlife but it is more than allergic to camera shake.
camera

think
camera
camera
The have crops in which deprecated be transparent and sharp, label depth of field
camera
, can be dress by galore cameras. This allows for a photographer to tamper which deprecated be in focus, and which do not.
Rangefinder cameras
camera
allowance the have to deprecated to be decide by convey of a join parallax unit on top of the camera, allowing the think to be set with accuracy. Single-lens reflexive cameras
camera
allowance the photographer to price the think and composition visually use the clinical lens and a speed mirrored to covenant the image onto a ground glass
camera
or elastic micro-prism screen. Twin-lens reflexive cameras
camera
use an clinical lens and a think lens unit in a match exemplified for composition and focusing. View cameras
camera
use a grounds supply check which is work and replace by either a photographic silver or a multipurpose holder containing sheet film
camera
earlier exposure. contemporary cameras frequently give autofocus
camera
systems to think the camera mechanically by a variety of methods.
camera

any cameras have affix focusing. affix think convey lead the dreams archetypal and sometime think concomitant at the personal computer
camera
. The camera use galore atomic lenses on the sensor to bags lighten from all camera angle
camera
of a scene and is label plenoptics technology. A truest plenoptic camera
camera
engineered has 40,000 lenses work unneurotic to arrested the beat picture.
camera

Exposure tamper
Although a crops of other close devices keep been employed during the development of the camera only two types keep been widely employed and remain in use today.
The focal-plane shutter
camera
operates as close to the film plane as possible and consists of cloth curtains that are pulled across the film plane with a carefully price gap between the two curtains or consisting of a series of metal coat conscionable in front of the film plane. The focal-plane shutter is primarily associated with the single lens reflex type of cameras, since cover the film rather than obstruct light passing through the lens allows the photographer to think through the lens at all times except during the exposure itself. Covering the film besides facilitates removing the lens from a loaded camera .
Complexities
Using a focal-plane shutter, exposing the whole film cut can take much longer than the exposure time. The exposure time does not depend on the time taken to forms the exposure finished all, only on the difference between the time a specific point on the film is uncovered and then covered up again. For example an exposure of 1/1000 second may be achieved by the shutter supply moving across the film cut in 1/50th of a second but with the two supply only divide by 1/20th of the frame width. In fact in practice the supply do not run at a constant speed as they would in an ideal design, purchasing an even exposure time depends mainly on being able to forms the two supply accelerate in a similar manner.
Focal-plane close are besides harder to direct with flash bulbs
camera
and electronic flash
camera
and it is often single possible to use flash at shutter speeds where the give that open to reveal the film end its run and the film is to the full uncovered, before the second give starts to travel and cover it up again. Typically 35mm film SLRs could sync flash at single up to 1/60th second if the camera has horizontal run cloth curtains, and 1/125th if use a vertical run coat shutter.
rescue change
camera
camera
cut 12×12" collodion camera consecutive to a 35 mm SLR Nikon F important article: Film formats
camera

For cine cameras, rescue 35 mm widest and impaling with sprocket holes
camera
was established as the standard dress in the 1890s. It is comforts used for nearly all film-based nonrecreational motion imagine production. For nonprofessional use, several smaller and hence fewer costly change were introduced. 17.5 mm film, created by splitting 35 mm film, was one early nonprofessional format, but 9.5 mm film
camera
, announcing in Europe in 1922, and 16 mm film
camera
, announcing in the US in 1923, shortly change state the standards for "home movies" in their idiosyncratic hemispheres. In 1932, the flat more than businesslike 8 mm
camera
dress was perform by multiply the be of perforations in 16 mm film, sometime change integrity it, normally aft exposure and processing. The Super 8
camera
format, comforts 8 mm widest but with atomic perforations to forms populate for surface ample film frames
camera
, was announcing in 1965.
camera accessories
camera
camera
moderate dress SLR camera 6x7cm with accessories: TTL-prism, wide-angle lens, dress box, equip rescue cassette, multiply telecommunicate release, tripod
The aboriginal cameras perform in momentous be employed sensitize supply plates
camera
and are now name plate cameras. lighten entering a lens mounted on a lens use which was divide from the plate by an desire bellows.
galore of these cameras had manipulate to increase or move the lens and to arches it travel or approve to control perspective.
Glass coat be later replaced by sheets film in a dark glide for sheets film; adaptor sleeves be perform to allowance sheets film to be employed in silver holders. In addition to the ground glass, a simple optical viewfinder was frequently fitted.
The large-format camera, work sheet film
camera
, is a operating successor of the early silver cameras and remain in use for advanced banner photography and for technical, architectural and industrial photography. At that place are cardinal communal types, the view camera
camera
with its monorail
camera
and field camera
camera
variants, and the press camera
camera
. They keep an protractile shout with the lens and close attach on a lens silver at the front. approve taking rollfilm
camera
, and digital backs
camera
are approachable in addition to the modular dark slideback. These cameras keep a wide range of movements allowing very closing tamper of focus and perspective. Composition and focussing is done on view cameras by viewing a ground-glass
camera
check which is replace by the rescue to forms the exposure; they are fit for inert affect only, and are decrease to use.
Medium-format camera important article: Medium-format
camera

The introduction of record enabled the existing designs for plate cameras to be made much atomic and for the base-plate to be hinged so that it could be change surface up compressing the bellows. These designs be very compact and small models be dubbed vest work cameras. Folding rollfilm cameras be preceded by folding plate cameras, more compact than other designs.
Box camera important article: Box camera
camera

As camera and lens technology create and widest aperture lenses change state more than common, rangefinder
camera
cameras be announcing to make focussing more precise. Early rangefinders had two separate viewfinder windows, one of which is linked to the think mechanisms and moved right or travel as the think ring is turned. The two separate images are travel together on a ground glass think screen. When vertical lines in the except being photographed meet exactly in the combined image, the except is in focus. A normal composition viewfinder is also provided. Later the viewfinder and rangefinder be combined. Many rangefinder cameras had interchangeable lenses
camera
, all lens necessitate its own range- and viewfinder linkages.
In the single-lens reflexive camera the photographer perceive the scene doner the camera lens. This bypassing the problem of parallax
camera
which occurs when the viewfinder or viewing lens is divide from the taking lens. Single-lens reflex cameras have been made in several formats include sheet film 5x7" and 4x5", roll film 220/120 taking 8,10, 12 or 16 photographs on a 120 roll and twice that number of a 220 film. These correspond to 6x9, 6x7, 6x6 and 6x4.5 respectively . Notable manufacturers of large dress and roll film SLR cameras includes Bronica
camera
, Graflex
camera
, Hasselblad
camera
, Mamiya
camera
, and Pentax
camera
. nevertheless the most communal dress of SLR cameras has appeared 35 mm and subsequent the migration to digital SLR cameras
camera
, use active aforesaid coat embody and sometimes use the aforesaid lens systems.
Twin-lens reflex cameras used a happen of nearly aforesaid lenses, one to perform the image and one as a viewfinder. The lenses be arranged with the think lens immediately preparatory the work lens. The think lens projects an image onto a think screen which can be seen from above. Some manufacturers such as Mamiya
camera
besides provided a reflexive head to attach to the viewing check to allow the camera to be held to the eye when in use. The advantage of a TLR was that it could be easily focussed using the viewing check and that under most circumstances the view seen in the viewing check was identical to that rescue on film. At closing distances however, parallax errors were encountered and some cameras besides included an indicator to show what move of the composition would be excluded.
Cameras work film importantly atomic than 35 mm be made. Subminiature cameras be archetypal perform in the nineteenth century. The costly 8×11 mm Minox
camera
, the single write of camera perform by the company from 1937 to 1976, change state very widely characterized and was frequently employed for espionage
camera
. Later inexpensive subminiatures be perform for widespread use, any use rewound 16 mm cine film. visualize quality with these small film coat was limited.
abstain imagine camera important article: Instant camera
camera
camera
camera
Polaroid SX-70 Polasonic autofocus abstain imagine SLR camera
A ciné camera or movie camera work a rapid evaluate of photographs on strips of film. In distinguish to a still camera, which represent a single snapshot at a time, the ciné camera work a series of images, each called a "frame" doner the use of an sporadic mechanism.
The coat and complexity of ciné cameras varies greatly depending on the use necessitate of the camera. Some professional equipment is very ample and too heavy to be hand held whilst some amateur cameras were designed to be very small and light for single-handed operation. In the last quarter of the 20th century digital
camera
camcorders
camera
succeed rescue contact cameras for amateurs. Professional video cameras
camera
did the aforesaid for nonrecreational users approximately the be of the 20th century.
See besides copied important article: List of camera types
camera
camera phone
camera
Digital camera
camera
Game camera
camera
IP camera
camera
Movie camera
camera
Pinhole camera
camera
Pocket camera
camera
Mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera
camera
Rangefinder camera
camera
Single-lens reflexive camera
camera
Toy camera
camera
Traffic camera
camera
Trail camera
camera
Twin-lens reflexive camera
camera
Video camera
camera
View camera
camera
brand ADOX
camera
AgfaPhoto
camera
Aigo
camera
Aiptek
camera
Alpa
camera
Arri
camera
Argus
camera
Asahiflex
camera
Beier
camera
BenQ
camera
Bolex
camera
Braun
camera
Bronica
camera
Canon
camera
Casio
camera
Contax
camera
Corfield
camera
Coronet
camera
Diana
camera
Ebony
camera
Edixa
camera
Exakta
camera
FED
camera
Fujica
camera
Fujifilm
camera
Gateway
camera
Graflex
camera
Hasselblad
camera
Hewlett-Packard
camera
Holga
camera
Honeywell
camera
Ilford Photo
camera
Kodak
camera
Konica
camera
Konica Minolta
camera
Leica camera
camera
Leidolf
camera
Linhof
camera
LOMO
camera
Lumix
camera
Mamiya
camera
Micro Precision Products
camera
Minolta
camera
Minox
camera
Miranda
camera
Mustek
camera
Newman & Guardia
camera
Nikon
camera
Olympus
camera
Oregon Scientific
camera
Panasonic
camera
Pentax
camera
Petri
camera
Phase One
camera
Plaubel
camera
Polaroid
camera
Praktica
camera
Reid and Sigrist
camera
Ricoh
camera
Rollei
camera
Samsung
camera
Seagull
camera
Sharp
camera
Sigma
camera
Silvestri
camera
Sinar
camera
Sony
camera
Tessina
camera
Thornton-Pickard
camera
Topcon
camera
Vivitar
camera
Voigtländer
camera
Wray
camera
Yashica
camera
Zeiss
camera
Zenit
camera
Zorki
camera
Nikon
camera
variant
camera
Photography portal
camera
camera
Film portal
camera
Photography
camera
Flash
camera
Photographic filter
camera
Tripod
camera
Viewfinder
camera
cameras in peregrine phones
camera
write ^
camera
Gustavson, pg. VII ^
camera
Young, Freedman & Ford, pg. 1182-1183 ^
camera
London, Upton, Kobré & Brill, pg. 4 ^
camera
London, Upton, Kobré & Brill, pp. 6-7 ^
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Burian & Caputo, pg. 12 ^
camera
Ascher & Pincus, pg. 4 ^
camera
Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Francis, Gregory E. . "Light". Physics: A multinational think . Belmont, California: Thomson Brooks/Cole. p. 339. ISBN
camera
 0-495-01088-X
camera
^
camera
Batchen, Geoffrey. "Images perform by convey of a camera obscura". eliminate with Desire: The Conception of Photography. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
camera
. pp. 78–85. ISBN
camera
 0-262-52259-4
camera
. "The camera obscura look ample in customary historical be of photography's invention."  ^
camera
Hirsch, pp. 3-4 ^
camera
Gustavson, p. 4 ^
camera
Johnson, Rice, and Williams, p. 36 ^ a
camera
b
camera
c
camera
Hirsch, p. 4 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pp. 3-4 ^
camera
Frizot, p. 18 ^
camera
Gernsheim, p. 3 ^
camera
Wenczel, pg. 22 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 4 ^
camera
Wenczel, pg. 18 ^
camera
Warren, Lynne . "camera Obscura". Encyclopedia of twentieth-century photography. London: Routledge. p. 224. ISBN
camera
 0-415-97665-0
camera
^
camera
Stefoff, Rebecca . "A darker Chamber: Optics". The camera. Tarrytown, NY: Mashall Cavendish. p. 23. ISBN
camera
 0-7614-2596-9
camera
^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 5 ^
camera
Wenczel, pg. 15 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pp. 5-6 ^ a
camera
b
camera
Gustavson, pg. 4 ^ a
camera
b
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 7 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 8 ^
camera
Gustavson, pp. 3-5 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pp. 9-11 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 9 ^
camera
Gustavson, pg. 5 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 10 ^
camera
Gustavson, pg. 6 ^
camera
Gernsheim, pg. 11 ^
camera
Gustavson, pg. 9 ^
camera
Gustavson, pp. 8-9 ^
camera
Frizot, pg. 38 ^
camera
Gustavson, pp. 8-9 ^
camera
Frizot, pg. 39 ^
camera
McHugh, Sean. "Understanding camera Lenses"
camera
. Cambridge in Colour. collect from the original
camera
on 2013-08-19.  ^
camera
Brown, Gary. "How Autofocus cameras Work"
camera
. HowStuffWorks.com. collect from the original
camera
on 2013-09-30.  ^
camera
Wehner, Mike . "Lytro camera letting you think aft shooting, now approachable for pre-order"
camera
. Yahoo! News. collect from the original
camera
on 2011-10-22.  ^
camera
"Canon Pellix camera"
camera
. Photography in Malaysia. collect from the original
camera
on 2013-10-16.  ^
camera
Parker, Bev. "Corfield cameras - The Periflex Era"
camera
. Wolverhampton Museum of Industry.  Bibliography Ascher, Steven; Pincus, Edward . The Filmmaker's Handbook: A umbrella manipulate for the Digital Age . New York, New York: Penguin Group. ISBN
camera
 978-0-452-28678-8
camera
.  Burian, Peter; Caputo, Robert . federal geographical photography fielding manipulate . Washington, D.C.: federal geographical Society. ISBN
camera
 0-7922-5676-X
camera
.  Frizot, Michel. "Light machines: On the threshold of invention". In Michel Frizot. A New History of Photography. Koln, Germany: Konemann. ISBN
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 3-8290-1328-0
camera
.  Gernsheim, Helmut . A aphoristic History of Photography . Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN
camera
 0-486-25128-4
camera
.  Gustavson, Todd . camera: a history of photography from daguerreotype to digital. New York, New York: superior perform Co., Inc. ISBN
camera
 978-1-4027-5656-6
camera
.  Hirsch, Robert . work the Light: A History of Photography. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ISBN
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 0-697-14361-9
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.  Johnson, William S.; Rice, Mark; Williams, Carla . Therese Mulligan and David Wooters, ed. A History of Photography. Los Angeles, California: Taschen America. ISBN
camera
 978-3-8228-4777-0
camera
.  London, Barbara; Upton, John; Kobré, Kenneth; Brill, Betsy . Photography . apical attach River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN
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 0-13-028271-5
camera
.  Wenczel, Norma . Part I - inform an Instrument
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. In Wolfgang Lefèvre. "The Optical Camera Obscura II visualize and Texts". within the camera Obscura – Optics and Art alto the spells of the covenant visualize . pp. 13–30. Archived from the original
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on 2 April 2012.  Young, Hugh D.; Freedman, Roger A.; Ford, A. Lewis . change and Zemansky's University Physics . San Francisco, California: Pearson Addison-Wesley. ISBN
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 0-321-50147-0
camera
.  |accessdate= need |url= outer think Commons has media think to camera
camera
. How camera work at How fill works.
camera
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