Television

television, or TV for short, , meaning "far", and Latin
television
visio
television
, convey "sight") is a telecommunication
television
medium
television
for exchange and obtaining speed visualize that can be monochrome
television
or colored, with or without attach to sound. "television" may besides involves specifically to a television set
television
, television program
television
, or television transmission
television
.
In 2009 78 percent of the world's households closely-held at least one television set, an added of 5% finished 2003.
television

The broadcast television system
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is typically broadcasts via radio
television
transmissions on labeled transport in the 54–890 MHz
television
frequency band
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.
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communicate are now frequently delegate with stereo
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or surround sound
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in galore countries. Until the 2000s, publicize TV slot be by and large delegate as an analog television
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covenant but during the decade any countries gone active solely digital.
restrict 1 History
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2 geographic usage
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3 Content
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3.1 Programming
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3.2 Funding
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3.2.1 Advertising
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3.2.1.1 connects States
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3.2.1.2 connects Kingdom
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3.2.1.3 Ireland
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3.2.2 Taxation or license
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3.2.3 Subscription
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3.3 Genres
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4 Sales of television sets
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5 societal aspects and perform on children
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6 Environmental aspects
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7 See also
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8 References
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9 favor reading
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10 outer links
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In its aboriginal re-create of development, television utilised a combination of optical
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, autoloading and electronic
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technologies to capture, transmit and display a optic image. By the late 1920s, however, those dedicated only optical and electronic technologies be be explored. All modern television systems relied on the latter, although the knowledge obtain from the take on electromechanical
television
systems was captious in the development of to the full electronic television.
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Braun HF 1
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television receiver, Germany, 1958
The idea of use scanning
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to cash visualize was put to current applicative use in 1881 in the pantelegraph, doner the use of a pendulum
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-based tests mechanism. From this period forward, tests in one form or different has been employed in active every visualize transmission technology to date, include television. This is the concept of "rasterization
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", the affect of converting a optic visualize into a streamed of electric pulses.
Nipkow's engineered would not be applicative until moving in amplifier
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tube
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technology change state available. concomitant create would use a move mirror-drum scanner to bags the visualize and a cathode ray tube
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as a demonstrates device, but speed visualize be comforts not possible, due to the poorer sensitivity of the selenium
television
sensors. In 1907, Russian scientist Boris Rosing
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change state the archetypal inventor to use a CRT in the receiver of an experimental television system. He employed mirror-drum tests to transmit simple schematic perform to the CRT.
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television
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Vladimir Zworykin
television
display electronic television .
In 1926, magyar create Kálmán Tihanyi
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designing a television system utilizing to the full electronic tests and display elements, and dedicated the principle of "charge storage" indoors the tests tube.
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By 1927, Russian inventor Léon Theremin
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create a mirror-drum-based television system which employed interlacing
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to succeed an image resolution
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of 100 lines.
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Philo Farnsworth
WRGB
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claims to be the world's aged television station
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, investigates its grow to an experimental travel initiative on 13 January 1928, publicize from the General Electric
television
factory in Schenectady, NY
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, alto the label receive W2XB.
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It was popularly characterized as "WGY television" after its sister covenant station. Later in 1928, widespread electrical been a support facility, this one in New York City, which had the call receive W2XBS
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, and which nowadays is characterized as WNBC
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. The two setting be experimental in nature and had no first-string programming, as receivers be request by create within the company. The visualize of a Felix the Cat
television
doll, move on a turntable, was publicize for 2 hours all day for any years, as new technology was be examine by the engineers. Milton Berle
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claims that he was on a dead aboriginal experimental television research in Chicago, Illinois
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, in 1929.
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In 1935, the German tensed of Fernseh A.G.
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and the connects express tensed Farnsworth television closely-held by Philo Farnsworth
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types an agreement to exchange their television procure and technology to moving development of television transmitters and setting in their idiosyncratic countries.
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In 1936, Kálmán Tihanyi
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set forth the principle of plasma display
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, the archetypal flat inlays display
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system.
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Although television change state more than acquainted in the connects express with the widespread in the public eye at the 1939 World's Fair
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, the outbreak of World War II
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forestall it from be forms on a ample decide until after the end of the war. align first-string commercialized television network
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schedule did not get down in the U.S. until 1948. During that year, characterized conductor Arturo Toscanini
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perform his archetypal of ten TV appearances conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra
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,
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and Texaco have Theater
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, keep comedian Milton Berle
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, change state television's archetypal large hit show.
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Since the 1950s, television has appeared the important moderate for moulding public opinion
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.
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In 2012, it was inform that television revenue was discipline fastest than rescue for bones media companies.
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geographic usage
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Television introduction by country   1930 to 1939   1980 to 1989   1940 to 1949   1990 to 1999   1950 to 1959   After 2000   1960 to 1969   No television   1970 to 1979   No data important article: Geographical usage of television
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Timeline of the introduction of television in countries
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limit schedule See also: television program
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 and Category:television genres
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archetypal run programming is augmentative on subscription servicing outdoors the U.S., but few domestically perform slot are interconnected on house free-to-air
television
elsewhere. This practise is augmentative however, by and large on digital-only FTA channels, or with subscriber-only first-run mercenary been on FTA.
approximately the globe, broadcast television is financed by either government, advertising, licensing , subscription or any combination of these. To wall revenues, subscription TV channels are normally encrypted to guarantee that only subscription payers receive the decryption tag to see the signal. Unencrypted channels are characterized as liberate to air or FTA.
Globally, the other TV revenue obtain separate into 45 to 50% TV advertise revenues, 40 to 45% subscription provide and 10% in the public eye funding.
television
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advertise
Since inception in the U.S. in 1941,
television
television commercials
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keep become one of the most effective, persuasive, and favorite methods of selling products of many sorts, particularly consumer goods. During the 1940s and into the 1950s, programs were hosts by only advertisers. This, in turn, gave great constructive accept to the advertisers
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finished the limit of the show. possibly due to the quiz display scandals
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in the 1950s,
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communicate improved to the magazine concept inform advertising
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breaks with aggregate advertisers.
In revolutionary years, the provide schedule or infomercial
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has arose common, normally in lengths of 30 minutes or one hour. any drug companies
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and variant businesses keep flat perform "news" items for broadcast, characterized in the industry as video news releases
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, provide program directors
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to use them.
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The TV regulator injected TV advertise in the United Kingdom. Its restrictions keep use since the aboriginal days of commercially roll up TV. Despite this, an aboriginal TV mogul, Roy Thomson
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, major the publicize accept as be a "licence to perform money".
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Restrictions meant that the big cardinal federal commercialized TV channels: ITV
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, Channel 4
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, and Five
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can show an average of only seven minutes of advertising per hour . Other broadcasters must average no more than nine minutes . This means that many imported TV shows from the US have violent delay where the UK consort does not utilize the narrative breaks intended for more support US advertising. Advertisements must not be inserted in the course of certain specific proscribed types of programs which last less than half an hour in scheduled duration; this list includes any news or current affairs program, documentaries, and programs for children. Nor may advertisements be carried in a program designed and publicize for reception in schools or in any religious broadcasting
television
function or variant prayerful program, or during a ceremonial Royal ceremony or occasion. At that place besides must be transparent demarcations in time betwixt the slot and the advertisements.
The Broadcasting equip of Ireland
television
television
oversees advertising on television and radio within Ireland on both private and state closely-held broadcasters. Advertising is found on both private and state closely-held broadcasters. There are some restrictions based on advertising, particularly in relation to the advertising of alcohol. untold advertisements are general until after 7 pm. Broadcasters in Ireland adhere to broadcasting legislation use by the publicize Commission of Ireland and the European Union
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. Sponsorship
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of truest affairs schedule is general at all times.
television servicing in any countries may be roll up by a television licence
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or a form of taxation which convey advertise plays a lesser role or no role at all. For example, some transport may travel no advertise at all and some dead little, including:
Australia lacquer Norway Sweden connects Kingdom connects express Denmark
The two important BBC TV transport are guard by almost 90 percent of the population all week and widespread have 27 per cent share of average viewing.
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This in interest of the fact that 85% of accommodate are multichannel, with 42% of these have access to 200 free to air transport via satellites and another 43% have access to 30 or more than transport via Freeview
television
.
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The licence that funds the seven advertising-free BBC TV transport presently be £139.50 a year irrespective of the number of TV travel owned. When the same sporting event has been show on any BBC and commercialized channels, the BBC ever attracts the lion's shares of the audience
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, tell viewers advantage to guard TV unbroken by advertising.
In France, government-funded transport travel advertisements yet those who own television travel keep to pay an one-year tax .
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any TV transport are partially roll up from subscriptions
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hence the signals are encrypting during publicize to guarantee that only the provide subscribers keep accessing to the decryption codes to guard pay television
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or specialty channels
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. Most subscription servicing are besides roll up by advertising
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.
Genres
Popular culture
television
entertainment genres includes action-oriented show untold as police, crime, detective dramas, horror, or thriller shows. As well, at that place are besides variant variants of the drama genre, untold as medical dramas
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and daytime soap operas
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. Science fiction
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shows can fall into either the drama or action category, be on whether they word philosophic questions or high adventure. Comedy is a popular genre which encompasses situation comedy
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and stimulate show for the develop demographic untold as South Park
television
.
northbound American consumers get a new television set
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on normal all cardinal years, and the normal household owning 2.8 televisions. As of 2011
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, 48 million are sold each year, at an average price of $460 and size of 38 inches.
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television
television
televisions for consumer get intercontinental large-screen television technology
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brands revenue shares in Q2 2013 Manufacturer DisplaySearch
television
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Samsung Electronics
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26.5% LG Electronics
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16.3% Sony
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8% Panasonic
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5.3% TCL
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5.1% Others 38.8% intercontinental TV Shipments by Technology in 2012 Technology DisplaySearch
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LCD TV
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87.3% PDP TV
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5.7% OLED TV
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0.0% CRT TV
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6.9% RPTV
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0.0% Total 100% Note: Vendor shipments are proprietary shipments and exclude OEM sales for all vendors societal aspects and perform on children important article: Social aspects of television
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With advanced lead
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limit in CRTs
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, and the abstain diffusion of new, flat-panel demonstrates technologies, any of which use lamps which contain mercury
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, at that place is discipline refer around electronic waste
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from get rid of televisions. think occupational health
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refer exist, as well, for disassemblers work copper
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equip and other materials from CRTs. favor environmental concerns think to television engineered and use predicate to the devices' augmentative electrical energy
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requirements.
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See besides
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television portal
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Broadcast-safe
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Content Discovery Platform
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Handheld television
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How television works
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Satellite television
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Information-action ratio
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Internet television
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List of countries by be of television publicize stations
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List of television manufacturers
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List of years in television
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Media psychology
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Outdoor television
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Computer monitor
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/VDU
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units Sign language on television
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Technology of television
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References ^ a
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b
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Diggs-Brown, Barbara Strategic In the public eye Relations: Audience focussed Practice
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p.48 ^
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Barceló, Bernd . Global Risk-Based Management of chemic Additives I: Production, Usage and Environmental Occurrence
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. ISBN
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 9783642248757
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, CSGNetwork.com., a Division of Computer help Group. ^
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Study Finds reasons betwixt television think And Attention Problems In Children
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retrieved 19 July 2012 ^
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"Paul Nipkow"
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. Bairdtelevision.com. Retrieved 2012-11-02.  ^
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"Paul Nipkow and John Baird: The Inventors of the autoloading television"
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. Juliantrubin.com. Retrieved 2012-11-02.  ^
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"History of the Cathode Ray Tube"
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"World analog television Standards and Waveforms – separate – Timeline"
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. Histrorical television data 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011.  ^
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R. W. Burns, John Logie Baird: television pioneer, IET, 2000 ISBN 0-85296-797-7
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pp. 73, 88 ^
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Mr ali283280 says: . "World's archetypal TV Recordings"
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"Hungary – Kálmán Tihanyi's 1926 procure Application 'Radioskop'"
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"Vladimir Kosma Zworykin, 1889–1982"
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Kenjiro Takayanagi: The forms of nipponese television
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, NHK , 2002, retrieved 2009-05-23. ^
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Milestones Development of Electronic television, 1924-1941 - GHN IEEE international History Network.htm
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^
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Glinsky, Albert. Theremin: ether music and espionage. University of Illinois Press, 2000. pg. 46. ^ a
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b
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"Philo Taylor Farnsworth "
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, The vivid Museum of the City of San Francisco ^
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Farnsworth, Elma G., dense Vision: act and Discovery on an infrared Frontier, season Lake City, PemberlyKent, 1989, p. 108. ^
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"The archetypal television Show" favorite Mechanics, aristocratic 1930, pp. 177-179
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^
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"Milton Berle, TV's archetypal have as 'Uncle Miltie,' Change state at 93"
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. 2002-03-29. Retrieved 2013-01-05.  ^
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"A uncommon Interview: Tom Snyder with Milton Berle - 1998! Pt. 1 of 3"
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. YouTube. Retrieved 2013-01-05.  ^
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"TV History"
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. Gadgetrepublic. 1 May 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2009.  ^
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"Exchange of Patients moving chambers television" favorite Mechanics, July 1935 pp.24-25
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^
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Teletronic – The television History Site
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^
television
television
^
television
television
^
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Patent 2296019 Chromoscopic Adapter for television Adapter. investigate patents
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^
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Arturo Toscanini- Bio, Albums, dreams – Naxos modular Music.
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retrieved 10 October 2012 ^
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Sackett, Susan Prime-time hits: television's most favorite speaks programs, 1950
television
p.1954. Quotation: "The city of Detroit was baffled when the reservoir watering aim dropped each Tuesday change surface shortly after 9:00 pm An investigation revealed that Detroit's citizens were waiting until Berle was off the air to go to the bathroom; the coetaneous flushing of thousands of toilets perform havoc with Detroit's watering works." ^
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Kowalewski, Anthony, "An Amateur's television Transmitter"
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, covenant News, April 1938. aboriginal television Museum and Foundation Website. Retrieved 19 July 2009. ^
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Lang, Brent . "Why television Is Beat rescue at bones Media Companies"
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. TheWrap.com.  ^
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Global TV 2010 – Markets, trend Facts & rating
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world television adept groups ^
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Global TV Revenues
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world television adept groups ^
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iDate's international TV Revenue trade Shares
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world television adept groups ^
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OFCOM's international TV trade warning 2009
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world television adept groups ^
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Karen Hornick
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"That Was the Year That Was" American Heritage, Oct. 2006. ^
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"1940-1949 C.E. : Media History Project : U of M"
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. Mediahistory.umn.edu. 2012-05-18. Retrieved 2012-11-02.  ^
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"The American experiencing | tests display Scandal | populate & Events | The The Aftermath of the tests display Scandal"
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. Pbs.org. Retrieved 2012-11-02.  ^
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Jon Stewart
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of "The cyclic Show
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" was mock-outraged at this, saying, "That's what we do!", and designate it a new perform of television, "infoganda". ^
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Segrave, Kerry . Product Placement in Hollywood Films. ISBN
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 0-7864-1904-0
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^
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"Kenneth Roy Thomson"
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. iron Gazette. 7 July 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2010.  ^
television
"BCI :: Introduction to the BCI"
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. Bci.ie. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2010.  ^
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"TV Licensing-FOI: Authorize facts and figures"
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. tvlicensing.co.uk. Retrieved 10 December 2012.  ^
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"viewing statistics in UK"
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. Barb.co.uk. Retrieved 17 April 2009.  ^
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"The Communications Market: Digital develop warning – Digital TV, Q3 2007"
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. collect from the original
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on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2010.  ^
television
television
^
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Ministry of Finance
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^
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Martin, Andrew . "Plummeting TV price iron Makers and Sellers"
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. The New York Times. pp. B1. Retrieved 27 December 2011.  ^
television
"Japanese TV Makers get trade shares as weak Yen increase Sales"
television
. Bloomberg. 26 September 2013.  ^
television
"Global LCD TV Shipments travel for the archetypal quantify in 2012; Outlook Cagey for 2013"
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. DisplaySearch. 21 gimp 2013.  ^
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New BBC iPlayer: Integration with Facebook and Twitter
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^
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Giddings, S.; H. Kennedy . ""Incremental moving Change magnitude Excitement": Bodies, Space, Movement, and Televisual Change". television and New Media 11 : 163. doi
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:10.1177/1527476409357592
television
.  summarized use objects parameters ^
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"The tower of the Machines: A analyze of Energy use Products in the chambers from the 1970s to Today"
television
. Energy salvage Trust. 3 July 2006. Retrieved 31 aristocratic 2007.  favor interpret Albert Abramson, The History of television, 1942 to 2000, Jefferson, NC, and London, McFarland, 2003, ISBN 0-7864-1220-8
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. Pierre Bourdieu
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, On television, The New Press, 2001. Tim accept and Earle March, The accomplish manipulate to priming quantify speaks and telecommunicate TV Shows, 8th ed., Ballantine, 2002. Jacques Derrida
television
and Bernard Stiegler
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, Echographies of Television, Polity Press, 2002. David E. Fisher and Marshall J. Fisher, Tube: the Invention of television, Counterpoint, Washington, DC, 1996, ISBN 1-887178-17-1
television
. Steven Johnson
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, Everything Bad is solid for You: How Today's favorite grow Is really building Us Smarter
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, New York, Riverhead , 2005, 2006, ISBN 1-59448-194-6
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. Jerry Mander
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, cardinal Arguments for the Elimination of television, Perennial, 1978. Jerry Mander, In the Absence of the Sacred, Sierra league Books, 1992, ISBN 0-87156-509-9
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. Neil Postman
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, Amusing Ourselves to Death
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: In the public eye enclosed in the Age of display Business, New York, Penguin US, 1985, ISBN 0-670-80454-1
television
. Evan I. Schwartz, The decide lonely Inventor: A Tale of Genius, Deceit, and the outputs of television, New York, Harper Paperbacks, 2003, ISBN 0-06-093559-6
television
. Beretta E. Smith-Shomade, improved Lives: African-American Women and Television, Rutgers University Press, 2002. Alan Taylor, We, the Media: Pedagogic Intrusions into US Mainstream rescue and television News publicize Rhetoric, Peter Lang, 2005, ISBN 3-631-51852-8
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. outer think determine more than around television at sister projects
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Definitions and translations
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from Wiktionary
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Media
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from Commons
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Quotations
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from
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Source texts
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from
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Textbooks
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from
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Learning resources
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from Library resources
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around television Resources in your library
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A History of television
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at the Canada Science and Technology Museum
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The Encyclopedia of television
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at the Museum of publicize Communications
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The Evolution of TV, A inform History of TV Technology in Japan
television
NHK
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television's History – The archetypal 75 Years
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Worldwide television Standards
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Global TV trade Data
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television in Color, April 1944
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one of the aboriginal magazine indentured elaborate the new technology of improved television Littleton, Cynthia. "Happy 70th Birthday, TV commercialized spreading bow on July 1, 1941; Variety label it 'corney'"
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, Variety
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, 1 July 2011. WebCitation archive
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.
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